Transboundary Planning and Management

Cross-border cooperation in Maritime Spatial Planning

Carneiro G, Thomas H, Olsen S, Benzaken D, Fletcher S, Méndez-Roldán S, Stanwell-Smith D. Cross-border cooperation in Maritime Spatial Planning. Brussels: European Commission; 2017. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/easme/en/news/study-what-are-best-practices-cross-border-maritime-spatial-planning
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The ‘Study on International Best Practices for Cross-Border MSP’ has been designed to assist the European Commission (EC) and Member States in the implementation of the MSP Directive through the identification of good practices of MSP, with a particular focus on cross-border cooperation; and to elaborate recommendations that can support the promotion and exchange of MSP at the international level, relevant to the implementation of the EC International Ocean Governance Agenda.

Over the last few years, an increasing number of nations have begun to implement MSP at various scales, from local initiatives to transnational efforts, motivated by opportunities for new maritime industries, the reversal of negative environmental trends and the improved coordination of sectors among others. In Europe, the European Directive to establish a framework for MSP (the “MSP Directive”) is considered as a step forward in the adoption of MSP principles and good practices by EU Member States. This directive can support not only a more efficient sustainable development of marine and coastal resources, but also strengthen cross-border cooperation, and therefore improve ocean governance.

This study has centred its work on four main objectives or phases: Firstly, the review of existing guidance and MSP processes, and compilation of a detailed inventory of MSP implementation outside the EU, the Study’s ‘Global MSP Inventory’, 1 which provides a description of MSP processes and identifies common practice, including approaches to cross-border cooperation. Secondly, an in-depth comparative analysis of four case studies of MSP implementation, 2 including literature review, site visits and key informant interviews, that identifies lessons learned in MSP, and good practices in support of cross-border cooperation. Thirdly, the formulation of recommendations on the international exchange of MSP, including recommendations on the application of MSP in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Fourthly, the presentation of preliminary findings at the 2nd International MSP Conference (March 2017, Paris), partly coordinated and supported by the Study team.

This report presents the final publication of the Study and presents findings associated with these four objectives.

Novel method to delimitate and demarcate coastal zone boundaries

Batista CMilanés, Suárez A, Saltarén CMBotero. Novel method to delimitate and demarcate coastal zone boundaries. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;144:105 - 119. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117304155
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Different legal frameworks and concepts have been used to establish coastal zone boundaries. Integrated Coastal Zone Management use some criteria, while Land-Use Planning use a different criteria. A critical analysis about this topic is done in the present study, with the aim of proposing a novel method for delimitation and demarcation of coastal zone boundaries. The method offers an integrated perspective regarding the river basin, the coastal zone, and their corresponding economic zones. Moreover, it is comprised of dependent and independent variables, representing useful decision-making tools for applying Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Land-Use Planning initiatives. The concepts of Primary Environmental Coastal Units for Integrated Management (PECUIM) and Basic Environmental Coastal Units for Integrated Management and Land-Use Planning (BECUIMLUP) were proposed and applied in Cuba, where twenty-three PECUIM and four BECUIMLUP were demarcated and delimitated. At the end of this paper, the importance of integrated criteria for coastal zone boundaries is concluded and demonstrated.

Cetacean conservation in the Mediterranean and Black Seas: Fostering transboundary collaboration through the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Authier M, Commanducci FDescroix, Genov T, Holcer D, Ridoux V, Salivas M, M. Santos B, Spitz J. Cetacean conservation in the Mediterranean and Black Seas: Fostering transboundary collaboration through the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;82:98 - 103. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16307321
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) aims at implementing a precautionary and holistic ecosystem-based approach for managing European marine waters. Marine mammals are included as a functional group for the assessment and reporting under Descriptor 1-Biodiversity. Conservation of mobile marine megafauna such as cetaceans requires transboundary cooperation, which the MSFD promotes through regional instruments, such as the Regional Sea Conventions and other regional cooperation structures such as ACCOBAMS (Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area). A questionnaire survey and an exploratory analysis of MSFD implementation in the Mediterranean and Black Seas were conducted. The analysis revealed (i) the saliency of cetacean conservation, and (ii) heterogeneity among countries in the implementation of the MSFD that may hinder transboundary collaboration. ACCOBAMS can stimulate collaboration among scientists involved in cetacean monitoring and can foster transboundary initiatives that would align with MSFD objectives.

Transboundary marine spatial planning: a reflexive marine governance experiment?

van Tatenhove JPM. Transboundary marine spatial planning: a reflexive marine governance experiment?. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning [Internet]. 2017 :1 - 12. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1523908X.2017.1292120?journalCode=cjoe20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Because seas and coastlines are shared between states, the formulation and implementation of marine spatial planning (MSP) should be transboundary by nature. The main argument of this paper is that MSP should be organized as a transboundary policy-making process, but this is hampered by the conceptual and institutional fragmentation MSP is facing. Based on an analysis of four transboundary planning processes in different European seas, the paper gives insight into the possibilities to develop and implement transboundary marine spatial planning (TMSP). To overcome the conceptual and institutional challenges, TMSP should be developed as a reflexive governance arrangement, in which the actors involved are able to change the rules of the game and to challenge the existing (national-oriented) MSP discourses. The paper develops four forms of reflexivity (unreflectiveness; performative reflectiveness; structural reflectiveness; and reflexivity) to assess TMSP processes and to formulate conditions which are crucial to develop TMSP as a reflexive marine governance arrangement.

Transboundary research in fisheries

Song AM, Scholtens J, Stephen J, Bavinck M, Chuenpagdee R. Transboundary research in fisheries. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;76:8 - 18. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16304924
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Spatial boundaries have become an indispensable part of regimes and tools for regulating fisheries, with examples including marine protected areas, regional fisheries management organizations and Exclusive Economic Zones. Yet, it is also widely acknowledged that boundaries are a social construct, which may be resisted by both fishers and fish ecology. The ensuing spatial and institutional mismatches have been shown to frustrate management efforts, exacerbating issues of non-compliance and ultimately leading to conflicts and overfishing. Interestingly, the often static and rigid nature of these boundaries has also led to a concomitant research interest in ‘transboundary’. This paradoxical situation of more boundary-setting entailing more transboundary thinking warrants a deeper understanding about boundaries and the role of transboundary research in fisheries. The aims of this review article are twofold: (1) a theoretical clarification on the meanings and uses of spatial boundaries drawing on geographical “boundary studies” literature; and (2) a construction of a typology that outlines how transboundary research is being articulated and envisioned. Together, the study reveals that transboundary scholarship in fisheries are mostly related to resources, fleets, trade and governance aspects and that dealing with the “boundary paradox” encompasses re-incorporating, re-scaling and re-imagining of boundaries. This article provides a conceptual basis for reflecting upon boundaries in world's fisheries and opens up discussions for a more nuanced boundary application that can better cope with multi-level interactions and dynamicity.

Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation

Barrett S. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2016 :201604989. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/11/02/1604989113.abstract.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The fates of “transboundary” environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a “tragedy of the commons,” shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states’ behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states’ self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

The Use and Design of Rights and Tenure Based Management Systems for Transboundary Stocks in the Caribbean

Gentner B. The Use and Design of Rights and Tenure Based Management Systems for Transboundary Stocks in the Caribbean. Bridgetown, Barbados: FAO Subregional Office for Latin America and the the Caribbean; 2016. Available from: http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/7230c587-1114-456b-a77f-4bcf6824a507/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The study makes an analysis of the motivating factors for rights based approaches in order to address the common pool fishery problems which dissipates rents. The author states that the answer to common property associated problems for fisheries resources is to secure rights to the fishery to end the race to fish and put proper incentives in place to increase wealth and sustainability. The paper describes the characteristics of strong rights and several rights based approaches in commercial and recreational fisheries for billfish.

A transboundary dilemma: dichotomous designations of Atlantic halibut status in the Northwest Atlantic

Shackell NL, Frank KT, Nye JA, Heyer CE den. A transboundary dilemma: dichotomous designations of Atlantic halibut status in the Northwest Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2016 :fsw042. Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/03/29/icesjms.fsw042
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We investigated conflicting perspectives over a transboundary species (Atlantic Halibut-Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) assumed to be one population spanning the border separating the USA and Canada. In Canada, the fishery is certified as sustainable by the international Marine Stewardship Council (2013). In the USA, that same population is listed as a “Species of Concern” under the US Endangered Species Act (1973). There are fishery-independent trawl surveys conducted by both USA and Canada on juvenile halibut abundance across the border. The data are sorted and both nations use their own jurisdictional boundaries to define the geographical area of their separate stock assessments. Here, we undertake a spatially unified, in-depth comparison of juvenile halibut distribution and abundance, and quantify the amount of suitable habitat for halibut across both sides of the border from 1965 to 2014. Juvenile halibut abundance was, on average, five times greater in Canada than in USA waters. The median per cent of occupied sets in Canada was about four times greater than in the US (2.5%). These differences could not be explained by the availability of “suitable” habitat. The lack of halibut in US waters, in contrast to Canada, suggests a finer-scale stock structure exists and that halibut have not re-established in the USA due to historical serial overfishing. A gradient from high occupancy of halibut in Canada to lower occupancy in the USA is evident, suggestive of connectivity between the two areas and supported by a lag correlation analysis of temporal abundance trends. The USA may now be a sink to Canada's source of halibut. While both countries have been correct in their individual assessments, a bilateral assessment of halibut would benefit both nations, and could include analyses of how fishing patterns in Canada will influence the magnitude and speed of halibut re-colonization in the USA.

Transboundary dimensions of marine spatial planning: Fostering inter-jurisdictional relations and governance

Jay S, Alves FL, O'Mahony C, Gomez M, Rooney A, Almodovar M, Gee K, de Vivero JLuís Suá, Gonçalves JMS, Fernandes Mda Luz, et al. Transboundary dimensions of marine spatial planning: Fostering inter-jurisdictional relations and governance. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;65:85 - 96. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X15003954
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There is broad agreement that marine spatial planning (MSP) should incorporate transboundary considerations, reflecting the cross-border nature of marine and coastal ecosystem dynamics and maritime resources and activities. This is recognised in the European Union's recent legislation on MSP, and experience in transboundary approaches is developing through official processes and pilot studies. However, differences between institutional systems, priorities and practices may not easily be overcome in transboundary initiatives. This requires a stronger focus on understanding the governance frameworks within which MSP operates and fostering interlinkages between them. This article discusses a European-funded project in which emphasis was placed on joint-working in every aspect, based on principles of equity and mutual trust. This led to the development of inter-relations, not just of the geographies and maritime resources and activities of the marine areas concerned, but also of the systems of data management, governance and policy-making and of the participants involved as officials or stakeholders, including their means and cultures of exchange. It is suggested that transboundary initiatives in MSP would benefit by complementing current resource management-focused understandings with governance and policy-related perspectives, drawing on experience in other fields of territorial cooperation.

Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective

Gaydos JK, Thixton S, Donatuto J. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2015 ;10(12):e0144861. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144861
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA), British Columbia (Canada), and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures) associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures) including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as likely, possible or unlikely. Impacts are likely to occur in 23 to 28% of the possible pressure/species scenarios and are possible in another 15 to 28% additional pressure/species interactions. While it is not clear which impacts will be additive, synergistic, or potentially antagonistic, studies that manipulate multiple stressors in marine ecosystems suggest that threats associated with these six projects are likely to have an overall additive or even synergistic interaction and therefore impact species of major cultural importance to the Coast Salish, an important concept that would be lost by merely evaluating each project independently. Failure to address multiple impacts will affect the Coast Salish and the 7 million other people that also depend on this ecosystem. These findings show the value of evaluating multiple threats, and ultimately conducting risk assessments at the scale of ecosystems and highlight the serious need for managers of multinational ecosystems to actively collaborate on evaluating threats, assessing risk, and managing resources.

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