Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,
In May 2013, the third Managing Our Nation’s Fisheries conference was held with the focus on "advancing sustainability." The speaker's papers are now available for your reading pleasure on the subjects of Improving Fishery Management Essentials, Advancing Ecosystem-based Decision Making, and Providing for Fishing Community Stability. You may download each batch of papers by session in the OpenChannels Literature Library.
-Nick Wehner, OpenChannels Project Manager
Table of Contents
Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005–2007. J. Plankton Res. 35 (5): 1080-1092. doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbt051. Astrid Schnetzer, Burton H. Jones, Rebecca A. Schaffner, Ivona Cetinic, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Peter E. Miller, Erica L. Seubert and David A. Caron.
Free: Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas as a Management Tool for the Management of the Seas of Malaysia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(8): 658-666, 2013. Jamal Ali, Shahariah Ariff, K. Kuperan Viswanathan, and Rabiul Islam.
Free: Social resilience - local responses to changes in social and natural environments. Maritime Studies 2013; 12:6 doi:10.1186/2212-9790-12-6. Harald B Broch.
How does species association affect mixed stock fisheries management? A comparative analysis of the effect of marine protected areas, discard bans, and individual fishing quotas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 10.1139/cjfas-2013-004. Kotaro Ono, Daniel S Holland, Ray Hilborn.
Fluctuating quota and management costs under multiannual adjustment of fish quota. Ecological Modelling, Volume 265, 10 September 2013, Pages 230–238. Diana van Dijk, Rene Haijema, Eligius M.T. Hendrix, Rolf A. Groeneveld, Ekko C. van Ierland.
Free: An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1209-1227, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-1209-2013, 2013. Le Cozannet, G., Garcin, M., Bulteau, T., Mirgon, C., Yates, M. L., Méndez, M., Baills, A., Idier, D., and Oliveros, C..
Free: Perceptions of ecological risk associated with introduced marine species in marine protected areas. Management of Biological Invasions (2013) Volume 4, Issue 1: 7–24. Amy L. Trenouth and Marnie L. Campbell.
Free: Assessing Environmental Damage to Marine Protected Area: A Case of Perhentian Marine Park in Malaysia. Journal of Agricultural Science; Vol. 5, No. 8; 2013. Gazi Md. Nurul Islam, Kusairi Mohd Noh, Tai Shzee Yew & Aswani Farhana Mohd Noh.
Sustainability of the Juan Fernández lobster fishery (Chile) and the perils of generic science-based prescriptions. Global Environmental Change, Available online 31 August 2013. Billy Ernst, Julio Chamorro, Pablo Manríquez, J.M. Lobo Orensanz, Ana M. Parma, Javier Porobic, Catalina Román.
Free: Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand. Marine Policy, Available online 30 August 2013. Nathan James Bennett, Philip Dearden.
The transformation of Scottish fisheries: Sustainable interdependence from ‘net to plate’. Marine Policy, Available online 27 August 2013. Caitríona Carter.
Finding the accelerator and brake in an individual quota fishery: linking ecology, economics, and fleet dynamics of US West Coast trawl fisheries. Isaac C. Kaplan, Daniel S. Holland, and Elizabeth A. Fulton. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst114.
Implementing a science-based system for preventing overfishing and guiding sustainable fisheries in the United States. Methot, R. D., Tromble, G. R., Lambert, D. M., and Greene, K. E. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst119.
Guidance for implementation of integrated ecosystem assessments: a US perspective. Levin, P. S., Kelble, C. R., Shuford, R., Ainsworth, C., deReynier, Y., Dunsmore, R., Fogarty, M. J., Holsman, K., Howell, E., Monaco, M., Oakes, S., and Werner, F. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst112.
Free: Managing Our Nation’s Fisheries 3: Advancing Sustainability. Managing Our Nation's Fisheries 3 Conference, May 2013. Speaker papers.
Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005–2007
Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed.
Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas as a Management Tool for the Management of the Seas of Malaysia
This study analysis the need for more research on marine protected areas and how regulation and recreational activities of marine protected areas, using fish stock indicators. Secondary data was collected from the Department of Fisheries Kedah and Department of Marine Park, Kedah, Malaysia. The finding shows that the key elements for good management are implementing an educational and awareness program, enforcing Marine Park regulations, limiting visitor’s use, establishing monitoring and evaluation programs. Coupled with the promotion of alternative activities and alternative islands to disperse pressure on the reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, these actions can help to ensure that the tourism industry at the marine park is environmentally, socially and economically sustainable.
Based on extensive empirical ethnographic fieldwork in northern Norway, the article examines social or cultural resilience and life quality in an island, fishing-based community. It is argued that resilience and life quality are interconnected when social or cultural resilience is considered. Life quality, not synonymous with life style or living standard, provides motivation (or lack of it) to cope or be resilient in times of social and environmental uncertainty and change. It is argued that community adaptation should be understood as resilient, but not just because contemporary residents are living at the same location as their forefathers. In spite of marked changes in resources utilized through generations, fish and fishing have continuously been, and still are regarded as, crucial to community viability and self ascribed identity of the residents.
How does species association affect mixed stock fisheries management? A comparative analysis of the effect of marine protected areas, discard bans, and individual fishing quotas
We developed a spatially-explicit bio-economic model of a mixed-stock fishery with an unproductive and a productive stock to examine how the spatial overlap between species affects the outcome of a fishery under alternative management methods. We considered a competitive total allowable catch (TAC) system, with and without a ban on discards, and an individual vessel quota (IVQ) fishery managed either to maximum sustainable yield (MSY) or maximum economic yield (MEY). We also evaluated the utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) designed to protect the unproductive species for each management scenario. Banning discarding (whether under a TAC or IVQ) created the biggest increase in profit regardless of species overlap as it moves the target species biomass toward Bmey. MPAs reduced the profit in most cases and were not always successful at conserving the unproductive stock above a target size. The IVQ system under MEY produced the most profit among all scenarios while preserving the populations above some target values in most cases, but an IVQ managed to MSY produced lower profits than a competitive TAC with a discard ban at some levels of species overlap.
North Sea fisheries are managed by the European Union (EU) through a system of annual quota. Due to uncertainty about future fish stocks, yearly revisions of these policies lead to fluctuation in quota, which in turn affects harvest and investment decisions of fishermen. Determination of quota requires high management costs in terms of obtaining information and negotiations between experts and policy makers. To reduce both quota fluctuation and management costs, the EU has proposed a system of multiannual quota. In this paper we study the effect of multiannual quota on quota volatility and resource rents, while accounting for management costs. We develop a bi-level stochastic dynamic programming model, where at level one, the EU determines the quota that maximizes resource rents. At level two, fishermen decide myopically on their harvest and investment levels, subject to the quota. Results show that policy makers can reduce quota volatility and improve resource rents from the fishery with multiannual quota. Important trade-offs are involved in the accomplishment of these objectives: fish stock and investments become more volatile, which leads to more overcapacity.
Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets), simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP) to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France) and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean), notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.
The perception of ecological risks (impact and acceptability) associated with introduced marine species (IMS), what demographic variables influence those perceptions, respondent’s knowledge of IMS, and people’s support for controlling introduced marine species impacts on the marine environment was explored at three locations in Western Australia: Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Rottnest Island Marine Reserve, and Hamelin Bay. Recognition that introduced marine species are an issue at state, national and international levels exists; yet often marine protected area management plans do not reflect this recognition. Therefore, we hypothesise that there is a lack of translation of concern regarding introduced marine species as a risk into tactical objectives within marine protected area management plans. This may be due to low stakeholder perceptions of the risk posed by introduced marine species. Survey respondents had a high level (89%) of self-rated awareness of introduced marine species and they also indicated (93%) a willingness to support management interventions to prevent, or control the spread of introduced marine species in Western Australia. Our results also indicate that gender (males) and age (18–45 age group) influenced respondents’ perception of risk (impact) of IMS, yet no examined demographic variables influenced respondents acceptability of risk. Furthermore, knowledge of introduced marine species, education level, and income variables did not influence respondents’ perception of risk (impact or acceptability). Understanding demographic characteristics that influence participants perceptions related to introduced marine species can be useful for targeted, educational initiatives to reduce the likelihood of IMS incursions. This begins to smooth the way for management to proactively develop and implement policies that are necessary to more fully protect the Western Australian marine environment.
Assessing Environmental Damage to Marine Protected Area: A Case of Perhentian Marine Park in Malaysia
The Perhentian Island located in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia is well-known for its rich coral reef ecosystems. Marine resources of Malaysia have been overexploited due to overfishing and tourism activities. As such no-take marine protected area (MPAs) were established in Malaysia, including Perhentian Island Marine Park to enable overexploited marine resources to recover and to conserve coral reef ecosystems. This paper examines the current level of activities causing damage to coral reef habitats in the Perhentian MPA. This study used paired comparison method to elicit the perception of local stakeholders on activities harmful to the marine habitats. The results of the analysis showed that various respondent groups had similar preference rankings on the harmful activities: littering, discarding fishing equipment, excess fishing and too many divers that cause damage to habitats in the MPA area. The findings suggest that policy makers should take cognizance of the local stakeholders’ concern in planning and designing of marine protected areas in Malaysia.
Sustainability of the Juan Fernández lobster fishery (Chile) and the perils of generic science-based prescriptions
Lobster fishing is the main source of income for the people from the Juan Fernández Archipelago (population ca. 770), located more than 700 km off central Chile. An artisanal fishery has operated uninterruptedly for more than a century with few harvest controls (season, size, no egg-bearing females). Access to the resource has long been regulated by an informal but well structured traditional sea tenure system, which has effectively constrained the growth of fleet size. Nevertheless, and in spite of a lack of impending crises, assessments conducted over the last 40 years have recurrently diagnosed that effort is well above the optimum level. On that basis, generic “solutions” (quotas, marine protected areas, closures) have been prescribed with no attention to their possible impacts on the users and on traditional tenure arrangements. We discuss the merit of those diagnostics and prescriptions, and conclude that the disruption created by their eventual implementation would threaten the sustainability of the fishery. An analysis of the entire social-ecological system is needed before drastic solutions are prescribed. We investigate the factors that favor sustainability using Ostrom's framework for the analysis of social-ecological systems. Those factors have to do with the resource system (a productive stock with well defined boundaries and divisibility of fishing spots among users), governance (traditional tenure and simple operational rules), the users (few, strongly dependent on the resource, and sharing a detailed mental model of the resource system), and interactions (self-organization and partnerships). The resilience of the system was tested by the devastating tsunami that hit the islands in February 2010. This case study illustrates the need to attend to the interactions among resources, users and institutions in the search for effective solutions and to avoid disruptive management interventions.
Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand
Conservation success is often predicated on local support for conservation which is strongly influenced by perceptions of the impacts that are experienced by local communities and opinions of management and governance. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are effective conservation and fisheries management tools that can also have a broad array of positive and negative social, economic, cultural, and political impacts on local communities. Drawing on results from a mixed-methods study of communities on the Andaman Coast of Thailand, this paper explores perceptions of MPA impacts on community livelihood resources (assets) and outcomes as well as MPA governance and management. The area includes 17 National Marine Parks (NMPs) that are situated near rural communities that are highly dependent on coastal resources. Interview participants perceived NMPs to have limited to negative impacts on fisheries and agricultural livelihoods and negligible benefits for tourism livelihoods. Perceived impacts on livelihoods were felt to result from NMPs undermining access to or lacking support for development of cultural, social, political, financial, natural, human, physical, and political capital assets. Conflicting views emerged on whether NMPs resulted in negative or positive marine or terrestrial conservation outcomes. Perceptions of NMP governance and management processes were generally negative. These results point to some necessary policy improvements and actions to ameliorate: the relationship between the NMP and communities, NMP management and governance processes, and socio-economic and conservation outcomes.
The European Union's Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is often considered inflexible and inherently failing. Yet, the recent experience of Scottish fisheries suggests that change is possible. Not confining themselves to limiting visions of the CFP, private collective and public actors across the industry in Scotland have worked to give new meaning to fisheries practices through institutionalizing their own understandings of sustainability. This is not just rhetoric. Rather, industry conditions of collapsing stocks have been re-problematized; new spaces of public/private action have been created and engaged in; new incentive-based policy instruments have been designed and operationalized. Throughout, interconnections between natural and social orders have been acknowledged and built into policymaking processes. However, these transformations could not have been achieved if other forms of political and economic interdependence had not also been recognised and worked upon. These include techno-political interdependencies of knowledge; spatial interdependencies of territory and domain interdependencies of production and commercial practices. It is active awareness of these which ultimately enabled actors to transform their fisheries from ‘net to plate’.
Finding the accelerator and brake in an individual quota fishery: linking ecology, economics, and fleet dynamics of US West Coast trawl fisheries
In 2011, the Pacific Fisheries Management Council implemented an individual transferrable quota (ITQ) system for the US West Coast groundfish trawl fleet. Under the ITQ system, each vessel now receives transferrable annual allocations of quota for 29 groundfish species, including target and bycatch species. Here we develop an ecosystem and fleet dynamics model to identify which components of an ITQ system are likely to drive responses in effort, target species catch, bycatch, and overall profitability. In the absence of penalties for discarding over-quota fish, ITQs lead to large increases in fishing effort and bycatch. The penalties fishermen expect for exceeding quota have the largest effect on fleet behaviour, capping effort and total bycatch. Quota prices for target or bycatch species have lesser impacts on fishing dynamics, even up to bycatch quota prices of $50 kg−1. Ports that overlap less with bycatch species can increase effort under individual quotas, while other ports decrease effort. Relative to a prior management system, ITQs with penalties for exceeding quotas lead to increased target species landings and lower bycatch, but with strong variation among species. The model illustrates how alternative fishery management policies affect profitability, sustainability and the ecosystem.
Implementing a science-based system for preventing overfishing and guiding sustainable fisheries in the United States
Fisheries management in the United States is primarily governed by the Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, first enacted in 1976. Overarching principles are that fishing mortality rates should not jeopardize the capacity of a stock to produce maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and that overfished stocks (i.e. biomass is too low) should be rebuilt to the level that will support MSY. The science-based system for achieving sustainable fisheries is implemented, in part, through setting annual catch limits (ACLs) that cannot exceed the acceptable biological catch that is recommended by Scientific and Statistical Committees using methods that account for scientific uncertainty. Accountability measures (AMs) are management measures to prevent ACLs from being exceeded or correct any overages that occur. Implementation in 2012 of ACLs and AMs in all Federal fisheries was a historical achievement in the United States; one that will help rebuild stocks and ensure sustainable fisheries into the future. Some remaining challenges include: determining appropriate catch levels and management approaches for stocks with incomplete data; assessing more stocks, more frequently; addressing differences between managing stocks as a complex vs. managing individual stocks in a multistock fishery; and incorporating social and economic factors in determining the appropriate response to uncertainty.
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a basic approach for managing human activities in marine ecosystems, with the aim of recovering and conserving marine ecosystems and the services they deliver. Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) further the transition of EBM from principle to practice by providing an efficient, transparent means of summarizing the status of ecosystem components, screening and prioritizing potential risks, and evaluating alternative management strategies against a backdrop of environmental variability. In this paper, we draw upon lessons learned from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's IEA programme to outline steps required for IEA implementation. We provide an overview of the conceptual framework for IEAs, the practical constraints that shape the structure of individual IEAs, and the uses and outcomes of IEAs in support of EBM.
Session 1: Improving Fishery Management Essentials
- Annual catch limit (ACL) science and implementation issues, including managing "data-limited" stocks
- Rebuilding program requirements and timelines
- International fisheries management: Leveling the playing field
Session 2: Advancing Ecosystem-based Decision Making
- Assessing ecosystem effects and adapting to climate change
- Forage fish management
- Integrating habitat considerations
Session 3: Providing for Fishing Community Stability
- Recreational and subsistence fishery connections
- Integrating community protection, jobs emphasis, and seafood quality assurance
- Assessment and integration of social and economic tradeoffs