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Anthropogenic Impacts on the Welfare of Wild Marine Mammals

For the week of 07 May 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Aquatic Mammals has published, Anthropogenic Impacts on the Welfare of Wild Marine Mammals. "Marine mammal welfare has most frequently been a topic of discussion in reference to captive animals. However, humans have altered the marine environment in such dramatic and varied ways that the welfare of wild marine mammals is also important to consider as most current publications regarding anthropogenic impacts focus on population-level effects. While the preservation of the species is extremely important, so too are efforts to mitigate the pain and suffering of marine mammals affected by noise pollution, chemical pollution, marine debris, and ever-increasing numbers of vessels. The aim of this review is to define welfare for wild marine mammals and to discuss a number of key anthropogenic effects that are currently impacting their welfare."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org.

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/oa/2018-05-09. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

Thank you for being part of the OpenChannels Community,
– Allie Brown, Raye Evrard, and the rest of the OpenChannels Team

Delineating priority areas for marine biodiversity conservation in the Coral Triangle

For the week of 30 April 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Biological Conservation has published, Delineating priority areas for marine biodiversity conservation in the Coral Triangle. "Identifying priority areas for biodiversity conservation requires systematic approaches and integrated ecological and biological information. Here, we applied a range of ecological criteria to assess areas of biodiversity importance in the Coral Triangle region, a priority region for marine biodiversity conservation because of its high species richness and endemicity. We used distribution data of three biogenic habitats to assess the criterion of sensitive habitat, modeled geographic distributions of 10,672 species ranges and occurrence records of 19,251 species to evaluate the criterion of species richness, distributions of 834 species of special conservation concern to examine the criterion of species of conservation concern, distributions of 373 reef fish species to assess the criterion of restricted-range species, and distribution of nesting sites and migratory route of six species of sea turtle to evaluate the criterion of areas of importance for particular life history stages. We identified areas of biodiversity importance by superimposing each of the different criterion. We performed two tiers of multi-criteria analysis: (1) a Coral Triangle regional level analysis to identify “clustered hotspots” (i.e., groups of cells) of biodiversity significance, and (2) a site-based analysis to identify the specific sites (cells) of greatest biodiversity importance. We found that approximately 13% of the Coral Triangle was clustered into hotspots of high biodiversity importance. These areas occurred along the southern part of the Philippines, the north-eastern part of Malaysian Sabah, central to eastern reaches of Indonesia, the eastern part of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. By comparison, the site-based analysis identified seven sites of highest biodiversity importance in the Coral Triangle include: (1) the northern tip of Sulawesi Island, (2) Ambon Island, (3) Kei Islands, (4) Raja Ampat Archipelago of Indonesian Papua, (5) the Verde Island Passage, (6) the southern part of Negros Island, and (7) Cebu Island. This information is useful to inform participatory decision-making processes in the Coral Triangle region to identify priority areas for conservation and management."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/oa/2018-05-02. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

Perspectives on the Great Amazon Reef: Extension, Biodiversity, and Threats

For the week of 23 April 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Frontiers in Marine Science has published, Perspectives on the Great Amazon Reef: Extension, Biodiversity, and Threats. "Here we provide a broad overview of the Great Amazon Reef System (GARS) based on the first-ever video surveys of the region. This footage supports four major hypotheses: (1) the GARS area may be six times larger than previously suggested (up to 56,000 km2); (2) the GARS may extend deeper than previously suggested (up to 220 m); (3) the GARS is composed of a greater complexity and diversity of habitats than previously recognized (e.g., reef platforms, reef walls, rhodolith beds, and sponge bottoms); and (4) the GARS represents a useful system to test whether a deep corridor connects the Caribbean Sea to the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. We also call attention to the urgent need to adopt precautionary conservation measures to protect the region in the face of increasing threats from extractive oil and gas practices. With less than 5% of the potential area of the GARS surveyed so far, more research will be required to inform a systematic conservation planning approach and determine how best to establish a network of marine protected areas. Such planning will be required to reconcile extractive activities with effective biodiversity conservation in the GARS."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-04-25. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

Social Media for Fisheries Science and Management Professionals: How to Use It and Why You Should

For the week of 16 April 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Fisheries has published, Social Media for Fisheries Science and Management Professionals: How to Use It and Why You Should. "Social media has revolutionized how people communicate with one another. This has important implications for science, environmental advocacy, and natural resource management, with numerous documented professional benefits for people in each of these fields. Some fisheries management professionals have been wary of social media use, in no small part due to unfamiliarity. The goal of this paper is to summarize the professional benefits of social media usage that are applicable for fisheries science and management professionals and to provide a detailed guide for those who wish to get started. Though many Web 2.0 tools exist, this paper will focus on the use of Facebook, Twitter, and blogs."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-04-18. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

A modelling framework for MSP-oriented cumulative effects assessment

For the week of 09 April 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Ecological Indicators has published, A modelling framework for MSP-oriented cumulative effects assessment. "This research presents a comprehensive Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) based on the Tools4MSP modelling framework tested for the Italian Adriatic Sea."

We also have a few new MarXiv summaries, including:

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-04-11. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

Fishermen Follow Fine-Scale Physical Ocean Features for Finance

For the week of 26 March 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Frontiers in Marine Science has published, Fishermen Follow Fine-Scale Physical Ocean Features for Finance. "The seascapes on which many millions of people make their living and secure food have complex and dynamic spatial features—the figurative hills and valleys—that influence where and how people work at sea. Here, we quantify the physical mosaic of the surface ocean by identifying Lagrangian Coherent Structures for a whole seascape—the U.S. California Current Large Marine Ecosystem—and assess their impact on the spatial distribution of fishing. We observe that there is a mixed response: some fisheries track these physical features, and others avoid them. These spatial behaviors map to economic impacts, in particular we find that tuna fishermen can expect to make three times more revenue per trip if fishing occurs on strong Lagrangian Coherent Structures. However, we find no relationship for salmon and pink shrimp fishing trips. These results highlight a connection between the biophysical state of the oceans, the spatial patterns of human activity, and ultimately the economic welfare of coastal communities."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-03-28. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

P.S. Next week we will have half a table at the Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference in Seattle. Come by and find us if you're there! 

Marine spatial planning makes room for offshore aquaculture in crowded coastal waters

For the week of 12 March 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Nature Communications has published, Marine spatial planning makes room for offshore aquaculture in crowded coastal waters. "Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA. We identify > 250,000 MSP solutions that generate significant seafood supply and billions of dollars in revenue with minimal impacts (often < 1%) on existing sectors and the environment. We filter solutions to identify candidate locations for high-value, low-impact aquaculture development. Finally, we confirm the expectation of substantial value of our framework over conventional planning focused on maximizing individual objectives."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-03-14. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

P.S. OCTO is at the 6IMDC in San Diego this week! Look out for MarineDebris.org totes and MarXiv stickers (if there are any left).

Assessing cetacean surveys throughout the Mediterranean Sea

For the week of 05 March 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Scientific Reports has published, Assessing cetacean surveys throughout the Mediterranean Sea: a gap analysis in environmental space. "Heterogeneous data collection in the marine environment has led to large gaps in our knowledge of marine species distributions. To fill these gaps, models calibrated on existing data may be used to predict species distributions in unsampled areas, given that available data are sufficiently representative. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of mapping cetacean densities across the entire Mediterranean Sea using models calibrated on available survey data and various environmental covariates. We aggregated 302,481 km of line transect survey effort conducted in the Mediterranean Sea within the past 20 years by many organisations. Survey coverage was highly heterogeneous geographically and seasonally: large data gaps were present in the eastern and southern Mediterranean and in non-summer months. We mapped the extent of interpolation versus extrapolation and the proportion of data nearby in environmental space when models calibrated on existing survey data were used for prediction across the entire Mediterranean Sea. Using model predictions to map cetacean densities in the eastern and southern Mediterranean, characterised by warmer, less productive waters, and more intense eddy activity, would lead to potentially unreliable extrapolations. We stress the need for systematic surveys of cetaceans in these environmentally unique Mediterranean waters, particularly in non-summer months."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-03-07. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

The ‘presentist bias’ in time-series data: Implications for fisheries science and policy

For the week of 26 February 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Marine Policy has published, The ‘presentist bias’ in time-series data: Implications for fisheries science and policy. "The bias in catch time series data that occurs when improvements in fisheries catch reporting systems (e.g., consideration of a previously unmonitored fishery, or region) lead to an increase in current catches without the corresponding past catches being corrected retroactively, here called ‘presentist bias’ is described, and two examples, pertaining to Mozambique and Tanzania are given. This bias has the effect of generating catch time series at the aggregate that appear ‘stable’ or increasing when in fact catches are declining over time, with potentially serious consequences for the assessment of the status of national fisheries, or in interpreting the global landings data disseminated by the FAO. The presentist bias can be compensated for by retroactive national data corrections as done, e.g., through catch reconstructions."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-02-28. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

P.S. Three new summaries are available on MarXiv. Read about: adopting indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs, using marine reserves to battle climate change at low-cost, and how acoustics can aid fisheries management. Find them here

P.P.S. The Deep-Ocean Stewardship Initiative (DOSI) has created a collection of Deep Sea Mining literature. Check it out on Mendeley

Climate for women in climate science

For the week of 19 February 2018

Greetings OpenChannels Community Members,

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has published, Climate for women in climate science: Women scientists and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women’s views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline. Over time, we show that the proportion of female IPCC authors has seen a modest increase from less than 5% in 1990 to more than 20% in the most recent assessment reports. Based on responses from over 100 women IPCC authors, we find that many women report a positive experience in the way in which they are treated and in their ability to influence the report, although others report that some women were poorly represented and heard. We suggest that an intersectional lens is important: not all women experience the same obstacles: they face multiple and diverse barriers associated with social identifiers such as race, nationality, command of English, and disciplinary affiliation. The scientific community benefits from including all scientists, including women and those from the Global South. This paper documents barriers to participation and identifies opportunities to diversify climate science."

As always, if we've missed anything, please feel free to let us know. You may simply reply to this message, or you may email Allie directly at abrown [at] openchannels.org (.)

You can read everything (not just the free stuff) we have found this week at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-update/2018-02-21. Additionally, you can browse literature by the week we've added it at https://www.openchannels.org/literature-by-week.

-Allie Brown and Raye Evrard

P.S. OCTO is celebrating its one year anniversary of tallying the total cost to purchase or rent the full text of each academic article added to our literature library. As of this week the cost has reached approximately US $37,531.75See more here

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