2015-07-15

Being Prepared for Climate Change: A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans

Anon. Being Prepared for Climate Change: A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2014. Available from: http://www2.epa.gov/cre/being-prepared-climate-change-workbook-developing-risk-based-adaptation-plans
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Identifying risks associated with climate change and managing them to reduce their impacts is essential. This Workbook presents a guide to climate change adaptation planning based on EPA’s experience with watershed management, the National Estuary Program and the Climate Ready Estuaries program. The Workbook will assist organizations that manage environmental resources to prepare a broad, risk-based adaptation plan.

The audience for this Workbook is professionals at organizations that manage environmental resources, especially organizations with a coastal or watershed focus. They are knowledgeable about their systems but not necessarily sophisticated about climate science or risk management. They may be addressing a myriad of issues that require immediate attention and have limited time to focus on adaptation planning for the future. Furthermore, they may need to adapt to climate change impacts within their organization’s existing resources. Despite these challenges, managers who realize that climate change will affect their ability to meet their goals will see the need to incorporate climate change risk into their planning.

Although risk management and risk-based vulnerability assessments have been highlighted or recommended by experts in the field of climate change adaptation, to date only a handful of risk-based plans have been published. Interviews with coastal managers conducted by Climate Ready Estuaries staff in 2011 revealed that managers are not sure what is meant by a “risk-based vulnerability assessment,” and would like tools to help them proceed. 

Living Shorelines: From Barriers to Opportunities

Anon. Living Shorelines: From Barriers to Opportunities. Arlington, VA: Restore America’s Estuaries; 2015 p. 54 pp. Available from: https://www.estuaries.org/first-national-report-on-living-shorelines-institutional-barriers-released
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The focus of this report is an assessment of institutional barriers preventing broader use of living shorelines. RAE and the committee believe the scientific benefits and technical merits of using living shorelines are sufficiently explored and documented elsewhere to support their use, when and where conditions are appropriate. The committee started from this point and did not see this report as the vehicle for making the case for the benefits of living shorelines. The committee understands there is more to learn about living shorelines and supports the continued refinement and advancement of research and technical materials related to living shorelines and all shoreline management systems, as well as coastal and estuarine ecosystems. 

A modified diagnostic social-ecological system framework for lobster fisheries: Case implementation and sustainability assessment in Southern California

Partelow S, Boda C. A modified diagnostic social-ecological system framework for lobster fisheries: Case implementation and sustainability assessment in Southern California. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2015 ;114:204 - 217. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001751
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fisheries exemplify the immense complexity of interactions in social-ecological systems (SESs). This complexity has created management challenges and raises concerns for the sustainability of our marine natural resource systems. This article contributes to SES fisheries research and management in two ways: first, it enhances our understanding of lobster fisheries as complex social-ecological systems, focusing on the Southern California Spiny Lobster Fishery (SCSLF) as a case study. Secondly, it demonstrates a methodological approach for assessing component interactions in SESs that can be used to assess the sustainability of management approaches. The first contribution involves the systematic review of the literature on lobster fisheries management and their SES characteristics. The review results are then used to modify and extensively define the diagnostic SES framework for specific use in lobster fisheries. For the second contribution, we demonstrate how to operationalize the modified framework for the diagnosis of a real-life case, using the SCSLF as an example. This involves framing the SCSLF classificatory diagnosis for analysis of the stakeholder-comprised management group of the SCSLF as a social-ecological action situation. This analysis is aided by the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, a SES-imbedded tool used in our case to assess sustainability in resource management systems through critical analysis of stakeholder and resource system interactions. More generally, we find that research in lobster fisheries could benefit from broadening its scope of analysis, as overly narrow research foci have worked to limit the production of more holistic SES knowledge. Our exemplary analysis of the LAC's management of the SCSLF shows that the SES contains multiple components which have been associated with sustainable outcomes elsewhere; however, the fishery still faces many obstacles, including how to adapt to future challenges. Our results contribute to developing a holistic methodological approach for operationalizing SES framework research into practical fisheries management.

Marine reserve establishment and on-going management costs: A case study from New Zealand

Rojas-Nazar UA, Cullen R, Gardner JPA, Bell JJ. Marine reserve establishment and on-going management costs: A case study from New Zealand. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;60:216 - 224. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X15001943
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

While there is considerable international research focused on the conservation outcomes of marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine reserves (MRs) there is little information on the economic cost to establish and manage these protected areas. This study estimated the MR pre-establishment and establishment costs for the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (TMR) in New Zealand (NZ) and determined the annual management costs for this reserve and four further NZ MRs. Finally, the cost to local rock lobster fishers resulting from the displaced fishing effort once the TMR had been established was estimated. This research found that the TMR pre-establishment cost was approximately NZ$508,000, and the establishment process cost was approximately NZ$353,000. The annual management costs across the five reserves ranged between NZ$43,200 and NZ$112,500 between 2008/09 and 2010/11. The annual fishers displacement cost at TMR was approximately NZ$22,000 per annum. This research showed that on a unit area basis, small MRs in NZ are just as expensive to maintain as large MRs. This study also highlighted how volunteer effort helped to considerably reduce the monetary cost of the MR pre-establishment process. This research increases our understanding of establishment and management costs, and supports future planning of MRs both within NZ and internationally.

Estimated human health risks from recreational exposures to stormwater runoff containing animal faecal material

Soller J, Bartrand T, Ravenscroft J, Molina M, Whelan G, Schoen M, Ashbolt N. Estimated human health risks from recreational exposures to stormwater runoff containing animal faecal material. Environmental Modelling & Software [Internet]. 2015 ;72:21 - 32. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815215001681
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Scientific evidence supporting recreational water quality benchmarks primarily stems from epidemiological studies conducted at beaches impacted by human fecal sources. Epidemiological studies conducted at locations impacted by non-human faecal sources have provided ambiguous and inconsistent estimates of risk. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is another tool to evaluate potential human health risks from recreational exposures to non-human faecal contamination. The potential risk differential between human and selected non-human faecal sources has been characterized previously for direct deposition of animal feces to water. In this evaluation, we examine the human illness potential from a recreational exposure to freshwater impacted by rainfall-induced runoff containing agricultural animal faecal material. Risks associated with these sources would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the benchmark level of public health protection associated with current US recreational water quality criteria, which are based on contamination from human sewage sources.

Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

Tallis H, Kennedy CM, Ruckelshaus M, Goldstein J, Kiesecker JM. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Environmental Impact Assessment Review [Internet]. 2015 ;55:21 - 34. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925515000566
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing.

Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean

Zipkin EF, Kinlan BP, Sussman A, Rypkema D, Wimer M, O'Connell AF. Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2015 ;191:216 - 223. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000632071530001X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Estimating patterns of habitat use is challenging for marine avian species because seabirds tend to aggregate in large groups and it can be difficult to locate both individuals and groups in vast marine environments. We developed an approach to estimate the statistical power of discrete survey events to identify species-specific hotspots and coldspots of long-term seabird abundance in marine environments. We illustrate our approach using historical seabird data from survey transects in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), an area that has been divided into “lease blocks” for proposed offshore wind energy development. For our power analysis, we examined whether discrete lease blocks within the region could be defined as hotspots (3 × mean abundance in the OCS) or coldspots (1/3 ×) for individual species within a given season. For each of 74 species/season combinations, we determined which of eight candidate statistical distributions (ranging in their degree of skewedness) best fit the count data. We then used the selected distribution and estimates of regional prevalence to calculate and map statistical power to detect hotspots and coldspots, and estimate the p-value from Monte Carlo significance tests that specific lease blocks are in fact hotspots or coldspots relative to regional average abundance. The power to detect species-specific hotspots was higher than that of coldspots for most species because species-specific prevalence was relatively low (mean: 0.111; SD: 0.110). The number of surveys required for adequate power (> 0.6) was large for most species (tens to hundreds) using this hotspot definition. Regulators may need to accept higher proportional effect sizes, combine species into groups, and/or broaden the spatial scale by combining lease blocks in order to determine optimal placement of wind farms. Our power analysis approach provides a general framework for both retrospective analyses and future avian survey design and is applicable to a broad range of research and conservation problems.

Biodiversity conservation research challenges in the 21st century: A review of publishing trends in 2000 and 2011

Velasco D, García-Llorente M, Alonso B, Dolera A, Palomo I, Iniesta-Arandia I, Martín-López B. Biodiversity conservation research challenges in the 21st century: A review of publishing trends in 2000 and 2011. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;54:90 - 96. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901115300113
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 recognizes the increasing importance of scientific knowledge to support conservation policies and decision making. In this study, we assessed the tendency of such knowledge in the first decade of the 21st century. We carried out a systematic review of publications in biodiversity conservation, considering the following aspects: type of research, main topic of study, object of study (i.e. biodiversity organizational level, taxonomic groups and ecosystems), pressures and drivers of change, as well as geographical distribution. In total, 966 publications were analyzed within the three journals with higher academic reach in the field under study: Biodiversity & Conservation, Biological Conservation, and Conservation Biology. Our results show that there are several biases in scientific knowledge associated with the object of study, and analyzed drivers of changes, as well as geographical distribution. However, research trends are not uniform along the first decade of 21st century, as there are some differences between 2000 and 2011 regarding the main topic of the study, the spatial scale and geographical region, and the analyzed ecosystems. We finally discuss the implications of current knowledge trends in biodiversity conservation for achieving the targets delineated by the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020.

Measuring conservation success with missing Marine Protected Area boundaries: A case study in the Coral Triangle

Venegas-Li R, Cros A, White A, Mora C. Measuring conservation success with missing Marine Protected Area boundaries: A case study in the Coral Triangle. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2016 ;60:119 - 124. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X1500360X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The on-going loss of biodiversity calls for assessing the performance of conservation strategies. In the case of marine protected areas (MPAs), a common indicator of success is the amount of biodiversity protected within them. However, there are many cases where the information for the official MPA boundary is not available, making it difficult to precisely measure the indicator. A solution to this problem is to create circular buffers around the centre location of MPAs for which boundaries are missing, equivalent in area to that reported officially for the MPA. The Coral Triangle Atlas provides the opportunity to quantify more precisely the validity of using buffers as proxies for MPA boundaries both at national and regional scales in the Coral Triangle. We used 612 existing MPA boundaries, converted them into point data at their centroids and then created circular buffers of area equal to that of the MPAs’ original polygons. Errors in estimated area of protected coral reefs were used to measure the bias created by the centroid buffers. We obtained an underestimation of protected coral reef area, both at the scale of the Coral Triangle region and at a national scale when using centroid buffers, with a larger underestimation as more MPA boundary proxies were used. We found that the size of MPA does not have a significant effect on the percentage of bias when MPAs are smaller than 100 km2 at a national level, and smaller than 1000 km2 at a regional level. With less than 15% of the total MPAs in the CT region larger than 100 km2, these results suggest that using buffers at a national scale for small MPAs may be a good solution to missing boundaries and cheaper than trying to collect exact information if working at a national or multinational scale. However, for countries with large MPAs such as Indonesia, using this proxy system will tend to create a larger error. At a regional scale, such as the Coral Triangle region, an estimation of total protected coral reef using buffers as MPA boundaries proxies will produce a small underestimation, thus, producing conservative results of protected coral reef area. This study shows the importance of assessing the bias introduced by using proxies for MPA boundaries when measuring indicators of conservation target achievement for coastal and marine areas.

World Database on Protected Areas User Manual 1.0

Juffe-Bignoli D, MacSharry B, Bingham H, Deguignet M, Kingston N. World Database on Protected Areas User Manual 1.0. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC; 2015. Available from: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/world-database-on-protected-areas-user-manual-10
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the only global database of protected areas. It is a joint effort between IUCN and UNEP, managed by UNEP-WCMC, to compile protected area information for all countries in the world from governments and other authoritative organizations which are referred to as data providers. The WDPA underpins Protected Planet at www.protectedplanet.net, where it can be viewed and downloaded and the database is integrated with other relevant information.

This WDPA User Manual provides information and guidance about the data held within the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), including its history, how it is collected, managed and distributed, and how it should be interpreted and used for analyses and research. The Manual has been prepared for WDPA data providers and users. It is structured in 4 sections and includes 6 appendices. 

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2015-07-15