This article examines the legal regime and overall implications of Portugal's Law n. 17/2014, 10 April, which established the legal basis for Portugal's policy on marine spatial planning and management of the national maritime space. To allow a comprehensive analysis, this article includes an unofficial translation of the law.
Increasing enclosure in fisheries, the rising cost of living in northern rural areas, and the single sector economies of many coastal communities have increased community vulnerability to short and long-term resource and market instabilities. This article situates Alaska coastal youth within the current economic uncertainty experienced by communities traditionally reliant upon commercial fishing. Focus group interviews conducted with youth aged 16-24 in Gulf of Alaska coastal communities demonstrate youth in this region possess strong, place-based social capital shaped by the small size and geographic remoteness of their communities as well as a connectedness to each other and to the physical environment of those communities. Key discourses emerged in the interviews concerning this “close-knit” nature of Alaska coastal communities, how their residents are “hands-on” people in the context of employment preferences and affinities, and that Alaska coastal youth perceive a “real world” beyond the borders of their communities offering them attractive amenities of modern, urban lifestyles. As opportunities in traditional occupations such as fishing diminish, coastal youth are encouraged to pursue higher education and in this context, young women are leaving more frequently than young men as gender roles change. Interviewees report many youth who do leave, however, often return home without completing their education and how others who do must sometimes leave home permanently to pursue careers unavailable at home. Including a youth perspective in policy discussions concerning local economic development would produce the following prescriptions: 1) investing in training coastal youth for culturally relevant and desirable work, 2) recognizing youth might want to return to their home communities in the future, particularly with their families, 3) giving youth a voice in community affairs and policymaking to cultivate future community leaders and stewards, and 4) committing to economic development strategies that encourage local ownership in coastal resources and industries.
Trawling has been reported worldwide to alter seabed structure, and thus benthic habitats and ecosystems. Usually, a decrease in species richness and biomass is observed, and community structure is modified towards more opportunistic species. The Gulf of St Lawrence (Canada) has been intensely exploited since the 17th century, including net, longline, dredge and trawl fishing activities. Recently, the collapse of groundfish stocks induced a shift in fishing practices toward shrimp trawling, which is currently considered a sustainable fishing activity in the region. However, no long-term study has evaluated the potential effects of trawling disturbances on benthic mega-invertebrates. We investigated whether shrimp trawling had long- (ca. 20 years), mid- (ca. 10 years), and short-term (ca. 4 years) impacts on benthic mega-invertebrate taxa richness, biomass, and community structure. Scientific and fishery trawling data analyses showed that no significant long-, mid-, or short-term effect was detected on taxa richness. Significant but weak effects on biomass and community structure were detected at the mesoscale, i.e. at the scale of fishing grounds. In this long-exploited ecosystem, we suggest that a critical level of disturbance was attained by the first gear passages, which occurred decades ago and had irreversible impacts on the seabed by removing vulnerable taxa and structures that provided three-dimensional habitats. It is likely that benthic communities have subsequently reached a disturbed state of equilibrium on which current trawling disturbance has limited or no further impacts.Trawling has been reported worldwide to alter seabed structure, and thus benthic habitats and ecosystems. Usually, a decrease in species richness and biomass is observed, and community structure is modified towards more opportunistic species. The Gulf of St Lawrence (Canada) has been intensely exploited since the 17th century, including net, longline, dredge and trawl fishing activities. Recently, the collapse of groundfish stocks induced a shift in fishing practices toward shrimp trawling, which is currently considered a sustainable fishing activity in the region. However, no long-term study has evaluated the potential effects of trawling disturbances on benthic mega-invertebrates. We investigated whether shrimp trawling had long- (ca. 20 years), mid- (ca. 10 years), and short-term (ca. 4 years) impacts on benthic mega-invertebrate taxa richness, biomass, and community structure. Scientific and fishery trawling data analyses showed that no significant long-, mid-, or short-term effect was detected on taxa richness. Significant but weak effects on biomass and community structure were detected at the mesoscale, i.e. at the scale of fishing grounds. In this long-exploited ecosystem, we suggest that a critical level of disturbance was attained by the first gear passages, which occurred decades ago and had irreversible impacts on the seabed by removing vulnerable taxa and structures that provided three-dimensional habitats. It is likely that benthic communities have subsequently reached a disturbed state of equilibrium on which current trawling disturbance has limited or no further impacts.
We present a novel technique for analyzing price dispersion in non-centralized quota lease markets where pairwise negotiations determine price and price information from past transactions is not generally available. The technique does not require fishing cost or ex-vessel price data and employs social network analysis metrics (namely degree centrality and constraint) to measure access to information and network position for buyers and sellers. Our method is applied to the Gulf of Mexico red snapper quota lease market and finds that certain quota lease traders with larger information-sharing networks or stronger network positions have greater negotiating power. Also, average quota lease prices varied by region even though there are no geographic trading restrictions. Results indicate social networks are correlated with price dispersion and inefficiencies in the trading markets that can undermine the success of catch share programs that seek to improve fishery profits and reduce overcapacity.
The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in the scale and complexity of scientific research. The growing scale of science has been accompanied by a shift toward collaborative research, referred to as "team science." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving their scientific goals. How does a team-based approach work, and how can universities and research institutions support teams?
Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students.
This study focuses, for the first time, on the presence of plastic debris in the stomach contents of large pelagic fish (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga) caught in the Mediterranean Sea between 2012 and 2013. Results highlighted the ingestion of plastics in the 18.2% of samples. The plastics ingested were microplastics (<5 mm), mesoplastics (5–25 mm) and macroplastics (>25 mm).
These preliminary results represent an important initial phase in exploring two main ecotoxicological aspects: (a) the assessment of the presence and impact of plastic debris on these large pelagic fish, and (b) the potential effects related to the transfer of contaminants on human health.
Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling–mussel association among two populations of an invasive mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and four populations of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). The impact of the invasive mussel varied between geographically distinct R. amarus lineages and between local populations within lineages. The capacity of parasitic larvae of the invasive mussel to exploit R. amarus was higher in a Danubian than in a Baltic R. amarus lineage and in allopatric than in sympatric R. amarus populations. Maladaptive oviposition by R. amarus into A. woodiana varied among populations, with significant population-specific consequences for R. amarus recruitment. We suggest that variation in coevolutionary states may predispose different populations to divergent responses. Given that coevolutionary relationships are ubiquitous, population-specific attributes of invasive and native populations may play a critical role in the outcome of invasion. We argue for a shift from a species-centred to population-centred perspective of the impacts of invasions.
Size and growth rates for individual colonies are some of the most essential descriptive parameters for understanding coral communities, which are currently experiencing worldwide declines in health and extent. Accurately measuring coral colony size and changes over multiple years can reveal demographic, growth, or mortality patterns often not apparent from short-term observations and can expose environmental stress responses that may take years to manifest. Describing community size structure can reveal population dynamics patterns, such as periods of failed recruitment or patterns of colony fission, which have implications for the future sustainability of these ecosystems. However, rapidly and non-invasively measuring coral colony sizes in situ remains a difficult task, as three-dimensional underwater digital reconstruction methods are currently not practical for large numbers of colonies. Two-dimensional (2D) planar area measurements from projection of underwater photographs are a practical size proxy, although this method presents operational difficulties in obtaining well-controlled photographs in the highly rugose environment of the coral reef, and requires extensive time for image processing. Here, we present and test the measurement variance for a method of making rapid planar area estimates of small to medium-sized coral colonies using a lightweight monopod image-framing system and a custom semi-automated image segmentation analysis program. This method demonstrated a coefficient of variation of 2.26 % for repeated measurements in realistic ocean conditions, a level of error appropriate for rapid, inexpensive field studies of coral size structure, inferring change in colony size over time, or measuring bleaching or disease extent of large numbers of individual colonies.
Climate in part determines species’ distributions, and species’ distributions are shifting in response to climate change. Strong correlations between the magnitude of temperature changes and the extent of range shifts point to warming temperatures as the single most influential factor causing shifts in species’ distributions species. However, other abiotic and biotic factors may alter or even reverse these patterns. The importance of temperature relative to these other factors can be evaluated by examining range shifts of the same species in different geographic areas. When the same species experience warming in different geographic areas, the extent to which they show range shifts that are similar in direction and magnitude is a measure of temperature’s importance. We analyzed published studies to identify species that have documented range shifts in separate areas. For 273 species of plants, birds, mammals, and marine invertebrates with range shifts measured in multiple geographic areas, 42-50% show inconsistency in the direction of their range shifts, despite experiencing similar warming trends. Inconsistency of within-species range shifts highlights how biotic interactions and local, non-thermal abiotic conditions may often supersede the direct physiological effects of temperature. Assemblages show consistent responses to climate change, but this predictability does not appear to extend to species considered individually.