Trends towards a more participatory agenda in policy-relevant science imply that the roles and work tasks of scientists become more multifaceted. In Europe, the increased use of multiannual plans creates a need for fishery scientists to contribute with their expertise in a wide variety of situations. We identify and characterize four roles for scientists as developers, reviewers, judges, and messengers in arenas where management plans are produced and evaluated. Using examples of producing and evaluating management plans for pelagic fish stocks in Europe, we present different scientific roles and how they may intertwine. The examples illustrate that fishery scientists increasingly interact with advisory councils and industry stakeholders when performing roles as developers and messengers. The roles as reviewers and judges are typically affiliated with evaluation processes carried out under the auspices of the marine science and advisory organization International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). While it may be difficult to separate the roles in practice, we argue that it must be emphasized to be aware of their different requirements to ensure that scientific credibility is not compromised. By asking the question “What hat are you wearing?”, we encourage individual fishery scientists, their employers, and ICES as a network organization of expertise to reflect on roles, affiliations, mandates, and possible consequences of wearing different “hats”.
Marine protected area or marine reserve was first conducted in Central Visayas in 1974 as a tool to manage coral reef. It was then replicated throughout the Philippines. The marine reserve of the following; Casay of Argao, Cawayan of Dalaguete, Daan-Lungsod Guiwang of Alcoy, North Granada of Boljoon and Sta. Cruz of Ronda has been established between the years 2000 to 2007. These MPAs were assessed to gather baseline information on its coral lifeform structure. Point-intercept transect (PIT) method was used in the observation. Benthic life form and reef substrate at each 0.25m point interval were identified and recorded along 50 meters transect line both inside and outside of these MPAs. It has been observed that massive, branching and digitate form of corals dominated among the five sanctuaries. Percentage of Live Hard Corals were much higher inside than outside to all sanctuaries. Common to all these sanctuaries were noticeable presence of Dead corals with algae and coral rubbles indicating its exploitation. Casay, Cawayan and Daan-Lungsod MPAs had some Crown of thorn starfish which may pose threat to its coral community. It has been recommended that there should be strict implementation of rules among the Local Government Unit; more policing and a long term monitoring to continuously conserve and protect coral reef.
Marine protected areas in the sampling sites have been established 8-13 years ago. This study was conducted to have a baseline information on the diversity, density and biomass of coral reef fishes inside and outside the five marine protected areas (MPAs) of Casay, Argao; Cawayan, Dalaguete; Daan-Lungsod Guiwang, Alcoy; North Granada, Boljoon and Sta. Cruz, Ronda (Control). Coral reef fishes in the MPAs were identified using Fish Visual Census Method. Results of the t-test showed that the mean diversity (fish species/250m2) of target and non-target fish species found in areas inside and outside the MPAs were significantly different. In terms of target species, the inside and outside density showed no significant difference. Similarly, density (ind./1,000m2) of non-target species inside and outside also showed no significant difference. This is an indication that fish density inside and outside the MPAs were more or less of the same condition. The mean biomass (kg/1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed a significant difference in contrast with non-target species inside and outside the MPAs which showed a no significant difference. Higher biomass of target fish species belonging to family Caesonidae (fusiliers) and Scaridae (parrotfishes) were commonly observed inside the MPAs. Results showed that fish species were more diverse with higher density and biomass inside the MPAs than the outside area. However, fish diversity and density were contributed mostly by non-target species. Hence, the need for a long-term protection and a well-managed MPA to improve fish population in terms of diversity, density and biomass specifically, target fish species.
Protecting and restoring Puget Sound takes the coordinated effort of hundreds of partners who come together to plan, prioritize, and implement the actions needed to recover and sustain Puget Sound.
The analysis and findings of the 2015 State of the Sound reports are intended to help our partners and decisionmakers better understand the state of our ecosystem, where progress is being made, where challenges remain, and where focused investment is needed. The Report to the Governor and Legislature specifically responds to RCW 90.71.370(3).
This reporting effort focuses on answering the following questions:
- How is the ecosystem doing?
- Are we making progress in implementing identified recovery actions?
- What have we learned and what are our next steps?
People in 114 countries have consumed meat and other products from ~ 87 species of marine mammals since 1990. Nonetheless, assessment of the sustainability of most harvests is very difficult because information on the target populations and harvest numbers is inadequate. Dugongs have been harvested by the indigenous peoples of Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea, for at least 4000 years; the harvest has been substantial for at least the last 400–500 years. We use several lines of evidence to re-evaluate the sustainability of this harvest in the absence of robust data on the absolute size of this dugong population or the harvest. The evidence suggests that the harvest is sustainable. Dugong relative density was significantly higher in 2013 than in any other survey year and their Area of Occupancy has trended slightly upward since 1987. The proportion of calves in 2013 was the highest recorded. Genetic diversity is high. Dugongs are caught in only 5.0% of the 5268 km2 of very high dugong density habitat as the result of the controls on the harvest and socio-economic factors. Nonetheless, many in the wider Australian community disapprove of this harvest and demand that hunting be banned. Enhancing culturally-appropriate spatial controls may be a more practical approach to managing this harvest than a more data-demanding Total Allowable Catch approach and may also be appropriate for some other indigenous harvests of marine mammals.
This study assesses the ability of hyperspectral optical measurements to discriminate changes in the composition of phytoplankton communities in open-ocean non-bloom environments. A large set of in situ near-surface measurements, comprising phytoplankton pigment determinations and hyperspectral optical data of phytoplankton absorption coefficient, aph(λ), and remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ), are used in the analysis. Measurements were collected in different ecological provinces in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans with chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from about 0.02 to 1.5 mg m− 3. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to measured spectra of aph(λ) and Rrs(λ) and the second-derivative spectra of these optical variables. The resulting optical-based classifications of the examined stations compared favorably (similarity index ≥ 0.73) with a classification of phytoplankton community composition calculated from pigment measurements. Similarities between pigment-based and optically-based classifications were better for the optical data of aph(λ) than Rrs(λ), with only slight improvements resulting from the use of the second derivative spectra as opposed to the non-differentiated spectra. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was applied to the optical spectra to examine the correlation of dominant modes of variability with several bio-optical and biogeochemical properties. This analysis supports the notion that the performance of the optical approach is strongly associated with the effects of differences in pigment composition, cell size, and intracellular pigment concentration among different phytoplankton communities on the optical properties of the ocean.
Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR) is the most common type of coastal marine protected area in Chile, being used for managing inshore benthic resources since 1991. The structure of the biological community in MEARBs are poorly studied and it is though that a better understanding of this framework is key to sustainability. Here we present a food web model to characterize the benthic community and key functional groups in the MEABR of San Vicente Bay (36°44′S–73°09′W), using the Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE). The Chilean albalone Concholepas concholepas is the main fishing resource in many MEABRs, including the MEABR of San Vicente Bay. The structuring role of main predators is assessed and compared using mixed trophic impacts (MTI) analysis and through calculate an interaction strength (IS) index.
The results show that the main flows of consumption in the benthic community of the MEABR of San Vicente Bay occur in lower trophic levels (TL ≤ 2), while flows in higher trophic levels (TL ≤ 3) are related mainly to C. concholepas. The MTI and IS analysis show that C. concholepas and crabs are the groups whose changes in biomass caused the greatest change in total system biomass in MEABR of San Vicente Bay and can be characterized as playing important ecological roles in that places. Exploitation resulted in direct and indirect trophic impacts that have the potential of affecting the sustainability of this and other MEABRs. Future research should also aim at advancing knowledge on basic ecological parameters of exploited benthic communities beyond target species.
Through history, population growth and anthropic activities have pressed and affected marine environments, causing impacts that were not always studied or reported. In this context, evaluate stakeholders perceptions of a particular region in Coastal Zones (CZs) can be useful for identifying environmental impacts that occurred in the past, especially in the absence of preterit data and effective monitoring. Engaging stakeholders in the discussion of local transformations may also contribute to the development of shared local management strategies regarding the knowledge and opinions of stakeholders about the place they live in. Thus, considering Araçá Bay as a case of study, this research aimed to understand preterit and present transformations on the Bay, through the perception of the people who live and visit the region for a long period of time. Data collected with interviews enabled the identification of events and factors that have induced changes in the region, mainly related to large enterprises and buildings that occurred from the second half of the twentieth century. Major impacts perceived by interviewees were changes in spatial configuration of the Bay, changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentary patterns, reduction of coastal vegetation areas and increased pollution. Some of these changes were also pointed by scientific studies or observed in historic aerial photographs, and were no totally predicted by EIA of related enterprise. Considering the importance of communities' perception and its use to better understand historical facts, preterit and present impacts derived from local human interventions, it is concluded that they are an important qualitative database and can be useful for the development of management strategies and for EIA analysis.
In March 2015, the FAO Global Aquaculture Production statistics database was updated to 2013. The dataset covering 1950–2013 can be consulted online at www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-aquaculture- production/query/en. FishStatJ, the data dissemination package loaded with several datasets including aquaculture production can be downloaded at www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en.
Migration is a feature of most small-scale fisheries across the world and has previously been described in spatial and temporal terms. This study assessed spatial and temporal migration patterns of fishers in Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique from October 2009 to March 2010 covering important migrant fishers destinations on the coast. The concentrations, fishing destinations, routes, frequency as well as seasonality of migrant fishers in each of the countries were assessed using 192 surveys at 9 sites and 127 semi-structured interviews at 25 sites. Migrations in Kenya and Tanzania were mainly seasonal while in Mozambique circular migrations were common and lasted far longer. Fishers from Pemba, Unguja and Nampula were the most experienced migrant fishers in terms of the numbers involved and their ability to migrate to distant destinations. The region is likely to experience increasing influxes of migrant fishers due to increasing fisher numbers, fisheries governance, and other factors that provide an environment conducive to migration. The small scales of operation of the local co-management structures, the lack of monitoring ability and the limited knowledge about activities of migrant fishers requires a shared regional approach in terms of fisheries management with specific attention to issues concerning migrant fishers.