2015-11-11

Dispersal of larval and juvenile seabream: Implications for Mediterranean marine protected areas

Di Franco A, Calò A, Pennetta A, De Benedetto G, Planes S, Guidetti P. Dispersal of larval and juvenile seabream: Implications for Mediterranean marine protected areas. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2015 ;192:361 - 368. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320715301403
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In the marine context, information about dispersal is essential for the design of networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Generally, most of the dispersal of demersal fishes is thought to be driven by the transport of eggs and larvae in currents, with the potential contribution of dispersal in later life stages relatively minimal.

Using otolith chemistry analyses, we estimate dispersal patterns across a spatial scale of approximately 180 km at both propagule (i.e. eggs and larvae) and juvenile (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) stages of a Mediterranean coastal fishery species, the two-banded seabream Diplodus vulgaris. We detected three major natal sources of propagules replenishing local populations in the entire study area, suggesting that propagule dispersal distance extends to at least 90 km. For the juvenile stage, we detected dispersal of up to 165 km. Our work highlights the surprising and significant role of dispersal during the juvenile life stages as an important mechanism connecting populations. Such new insights are crucial for creating effective management strategies (e.g. MPAs and MPA networks) and to gain support from policymakers and stakeholders, highlighting that MPA benefits can extend well beyond MPA borders, and not only via dispersal of eggs and larvae, but also through movement by juveniles.

Marine spatial planning for the Falkland Islands. ‘Methodology for identification of important areas for marine megafauna’ workshop report

Augé AA, Lascelles B, Dias MP. Marine spatial planning for the Falkland Islands. ‘Methodology for identification of important areas for marine megafauna’ workshop report. Stanley, Falkland Islands: South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute; 2015. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/282027322_Marine_spatial_planning_for_the_Falkland_Islands._Methodology_for_identification_of_important_areas_for_marine_megafauna_workshop_report
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

A project entitled ‘Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) for the Falkland Islands’, funded by Darwin Plus, was started in July 2014 with data on marine megafauna (seabirds and marine mammals) considered as an essential component to include in the MSP process. The Falkland Islands are recognised as a hotspot for marine megafauna. In order to effectively include marine megafauna in the MSP process, identification of the key areas used by these species around the Falkland Islands is needed. As part of the project, a workshop was organised in Cambridge, UK, on 13-14 April 2015 to develop methodologies for combining existing data on marine megafauna distribution (tracking, at-sea sightings, breeding locations) and provide an evidence-based assessment of key areas for inclusion in the MSP process. Most of the data holders who agreed to share data on species that breed in the Falkland Islands for the MSP project were in attendance at this workshop. The main aim of the workshop was to discuss methodologies that would allow transparent, consistent and scientifically robust approaches for data gathering and analysis to identify key and used areas for marine megafauna. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop, presents some examples of data and preliminary analyses and the recommended approaches agreed at the workshop. 

Emergent Properties Delineate Marine Ecosystem Perturbation and Recovery

Link JS, Pranovi F, Libralato S, Coll M, Christensen V, Solidoro C, Fulton EA. Emergent Properties Delineate Marine Ecosystem Perturbation and Recovery. Trends in Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2015 ;30(11):649 - 661. Available from: http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(15)00220-7
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Whether there are common and emergent patterns from marine ecosystems remains an important question because marine ecosystems provide billions of dollars of ecosystem services to the global community, but face many perturbations with significant consequences. Here, we develop cumulative trophic patterns for marine ecosystems, featuring sigmoidal cumulative biomass (cumB)–trophic level (TL) and ‘hockey-stick’ production (cumP)–cumB curves. The patterns have a trophodynamic theoretical basis and capitalize on emergent, fundamental, and invariant features of marine ecosystems. These patterns have strong global support, being observed in over 120 marine ecosystems. Parameters from these curves elucidate the direction and magnitude of marine ecosystem perturbation or recovery; if biomass and productivity can be monitored effectively over time, such relations may prove to be broadly useful. Curve parameters are proposed as possible ecosystem thresholds, perhaps to better manage the marine ecosystems of the world.

Note: NOAA summarized this paper at http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2015/111015-study-unlocks-faster-way-to-assess-ocean-ecosystem-health.html

Bayesian logistic mixed-effects modelling of transect data: relating red tree coral presence to habitat characteristics

Masuda MM, Stone RP. Bayesian logistic mixed-effects modelling of transect data: relating red tree coral presence to habitat characteristics. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2015 :fsv163. Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/17/icesjms.fsv163.abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The collection of continuous data on transects is a common practice in habitat and fishery stock assessments; however, the application of standard regression models that assume independence to serially correlated data is problematic. We show that generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), i.e. generalized linear models for longitudinal data, that are normally used for studies performed over time can also be applied to other types of clustered or serially correlated data. We apply a specific GLMM for longitudinal data, a hierarchical Bayesian logistic mixed-effects model (BLMM), to a marine ecology dataset obtained from submersible video recordings of the seabed on transects at two sites in the Gulf of Alaska. The BLMM was effective in relating the presence of red tree corals (Primnoa pacifica; i.e. binary data) to habitat characteristics: the presence of red tree corals is highly associated with bedrock as the primary substrate (estimated odds ratio 9–19), high to very high seabed roughness (estimated odds ratio 3–5), and medium to high slope (estimated odds ratio 2–3). The covariate depth was less important at the sites. We also demonstrate and compare two methods of model checking: full and mixed posterior predictive assessments, the latter of which provided a more realistic assessment, and we calculate the variance partition coefficient for reporting the variation explained by multiple levels of the hierarchical model.

New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

Lehnert H, Stone RP. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Zootaxa [Internet]. 2015 ;4033(4):451. Available from: http://biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.4033.4.1
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulatan. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

Numerical study of underwater fate of oil spilled from deepwater blowout

Chen H, An W, You Y, Lei F, Zhao Y, Li J. Numerical study of underwater fate of oil spilled from deepwater blowout. Ocean Engineering [Internet]. 2015 ;110:227 - 243. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801815005624
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Based on Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model is developed to simulate the underwater transport and fate of oil spilled from deepwater. This model consists of two submodels: the plume dynamics model and advection–diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by ambient current and turbulence. The model validity is verified through comparing model predictions with data observed from a field experiment. The model is applied to simulating a hypothetical oil spill taking place at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea, wherein the fate of spilled oil within the first 48 h after spill starts is investigated in terms of the oil budget and its underwater distribution.

Becoming a region, becoming global, becoming imperceptible: Territorialising salmon in Chilean Patagonia

Blanco G, Arce A, Fisher E. Becoming a region, becoming global, becoming imperceptible: Territorialising salmon in Chilean Patagonia. Journal of Rural Studies [Internet]. 2015 ;42:179 - 190. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016715300346
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Our article focuses on the region of Chilean Patagonia and considers how it has developed as a leading producer of salmon for global food markets. It addresses the problem of how to decentre conventional views of the forces driving regional development that give primacy to the role of capital and technology, instead giving due recognition to the knowledge and practices of situated actors and to the relationships that form between human and non-human entities in food producing regions. As an alternative, we ask whether an assemblage approach can improve our understanding of regional transformation. To explore this question, we present original ethnographic data on constitutive practices that have transformed the Patagonian region, from the territorialization of Salmonidae species to experimentation in ocean ranching and seawater fish farming, and finally the development of a global industry. The evidence leads us to argue that in a complex globalised world, assemblage theory offers a valuable approach for understanding how regional potential is realised. In the case of Chilean Patagonia, it is apparent that forms of bio-power generate new relations between life, agency and nature, stimulating contemporary regional transformations in ways overlooked by the lineal logic of capital objectification discourses. Applying an assemblage approach enables the significance of new contemporary human – non-human relationships and inter-subjectivities to come to the fore, keeping the social in view as potential for regional transformation and new power asymmetries continuously emerge.

Current stock situation and measures for the management and conservation of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in Korean waters

Song K-J. Current stock situation and measures for the management and conservation of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in Korean waters. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2016 ;119:164 - 168. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115300466
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Although minke whales in Korean waters have been protected for more than 28 years after a commercial whaling moratorium in 1986, relatively little effort has been focused on assessing their current status of this population in this area after this protection and the efficacy of this protection. Thus, current stock situation and measures for the management and conservation of minke whales in Korean waters was investigated. Although Korea has undertaken significant efforts to archive the biological material of bycaught minke whales, the results remain incomplete. Furthermore, although a number of studies have reported the extent of bycaught minke whales, there has been little effort to reduce this occurrence in Korean waters compared with efforts to report it. Finally, there exists little data for investigating the effect of bycatch on the survival of minke whales in Korean waters. To improve weaknesses in the management of minke whales in Korean waters and to efficiently conserve and manage this population, the following efforts are urgently needed: 1) Conduct research on minke whales including satellite tagging; 2) Establish DNA registers for all minke whale bycatch, market surveys and intensive control of illegal catch; 3) Assess the usefulness of several mitigation measures to reduce bycatch (pingers, fishing gear modifications and time-area closures), and apply these measures; 4) Assess the effect of bycatch on the survival of minke whales in Korean waters; 5) Reduce the incentive for bycaught minke whales and use it as research funds for minke whales and incentives for releasing entrapped or entangled whale in fishing gears; 6) Compare with other studies on the management suggestions to modify the current stock situation. Among these suggestions to modify the current stock situation, the application of bycatch mitigation measures and intensive control of illegal catch are expected to efficiently improve the current stock situation of minke whales in Korean waters by reducing bycatch and illegal catch. Particularly, among bycatch mitigation measures, fishing gear modification and pinger are considered as efficient management suggestions for this stock in this area.

Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

A. Rocha CS, Reis-Henriques MArmanda, Galhano V, Ferreira M, Guimarães L. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2016 ;542:728 - 749. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715308652
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems.

Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms.

Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should address these issues under more realistic exposure scenarios reflecting the prevailing spatial and temporal variability in ecological and environmental conditions.

Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors

Teichert N, Borja A, Chust G, Uriarte A, Lepage M. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2016 ;542:383 - 393. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715308883
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context.

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