We show how the notions of accessibility, vulnerability, and resilience can be used to shed light on the sustainable management of a natural area that is used for ecotourism. To this end, we construct and analyze two queuing-theoretic models that approach the problem of sustainable management in different ways. In the first model, there is a capacity constraint on the number of ecotourists that are permitted to visit the natural area and the optimal rate at which an ecotourist agency manager provides service to the ecotourists is endogenously determined. In the second model, there is no capacity constraint but the manager endogenously ascertains the optimal number of ecotourists who are allowed into the natural area before he provides service to these ecotourists. The sustainability aspect of the management problem is addressed in two ways. First, the conceptualizations of accessibility, vulnerability, and resilience depend on certain long run metrics. Second, the objective functions in the two models that the manager optimizes are formulated using these long run metrics.
The objective of this paper is to identify factors affecting beach environments and to establish a multi-criteria evaluation structure for tourist beaches. This structure is intended to inform beach managers on where and how they should invest resources to achieve sustainable beach tourism. A critical review of literature related to beach quality criteria was made. Interviews with experts were conducted in the identification of factors with respect to a high-use tourist beach in southern Taiwan. Four major dimensions were extracted from a number of factors using factor analysis: cleanliness of beach environments, safety, beach protection and management, and facilities and services. The fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach, a decision-making method based on pair-wise comparisons between criteria, was then used to construct a three level evaluation structure with criteria and associated weights for beach managers. The results show that cleanliness of beach environments and safety are considered relatively important factors in the second level. Among 15 attributes, water quality standards, clean beaches, safe access to beaches, management of different uses, sediment and habitat management, information provision, controlled waste discharge, and a beach management committee are the top half rankings in the third level. Management implications from the findings were discussed, with an emphasis on managing beach in an integrated manner. At last, a step-by-step model was highlighted as a practical way to assist policy makers to find priority factors and engage in effective beach management.
Environmental sensitivity maps have been prepared to identify the sensitive coastal resources, oil spill contingency planning and its results. The present study attempts to identify the environmental sensitivity to the oil spill of Karnataka coast by using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Nearly 300 km long coastline of Karnataka is endowed with a vast variety of natural resources and aesthetics. Several of the rivers that originate in the Western Ghats form wide extensive estuaries, backwaters and mangrove forests before debouching into the Arabian Sea. Besides, several non-vegetal wetlands like beaches, spits, shoals, mudflats, rocky cliffs and a few islands are found scattered all along the coast. A major port (New Mangalore Port), ten minor ports and a naval base (near Karwar) are also situated in the study area. As a result, various ESI types namely: 1A, 1B, 3A, 4, 6B, 8B, 9B, 10A, 10B and 10D were noticed in the study area. Bio-resources such as birds, marine mammals, reptiles (sea turtle), shellfish; and habitats like corals etc.; and human-use resources such as factories, ferry, boat ramp, access to vehicles, beach etc. are mapped in this study.
Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national–local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives. Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents. The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.
Estimating absence locations of a species is important in conservation biology and conservation planning. For instance, using reliable absence as much as presence information, species distribution models can enhance their performance and produce more accurate predictions of the distribution of a species. Unfortunately, estimating reliable absence locations is difficult and often requires a deep knowledge of the species’ distribution and of its abiotic and biotic environmental preferences and tolerance. In this paper, we propose a methodology to reconstruct reliable absence information from presence-only information, and the conditions that those presence-only data have to meet to make this possible.
Large species occurrence data collections (otherwise called occurrence datasets) contain high quality and expert-reviewed species observation records from scientific surveys. These surveys can be used to retrieve species presence locations, but they also record places where the species in their target list were not observed. Although these absences could be simply due to sampling variation, it is possible to intersect many of these reports to estimate true absence locations, i.e. those due to habitat unsuitability or geographical hindrances. In this paper, we present a method to generate reliable absence locations of this type for marine species, using scientific surveys reports contained in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), an authoritative species occurrence dataset. Our method spatially aggregates information from surveys focussing on the same target species. It detects absence locations for a given species as those locations in which repeated surveys (that included the species of interest in their target list) reported information only on other species. We qualitatively demonstrate the reliability of our method using distribution records of the Atlantic cod as a case study. Additionally, we quantitatively estimate its performance using another authoritative large species occurrence dataset, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). We also demonstrate that our approach has higher accuracy and presents complementary behaviour with respect to another method using environmental envelopes. Our process can support species distribution models (as well as other types of models, e.g. climate change models) by providing reliable data to presence/absence approaches. It can manage regional as well as global scale scenarios and runs within a collaborative e-Infrastructure (D4Science) that publishes it as-a-Service, allowing biologists to reproduce, repeat and share experimental results.
Aquatic biogeochemical models are vital tools in understanding and predicting human impacts on water clarity. In this paper, we develop a spectrally-resolved optical model that produces remote-sensing reflectance as a function of depth-resolved biogeochemical model properties such as phytoplankton biomass, suspended sediment concentrations and benthic reflectance. We compare simulated remote-sensing reflectance from a 4 km resolution coupled hydrodynamic, optical, sediment and biogeochemical model configured for the Great Barrier Reef with observed remote-sensing reflectance from the MODIS sensor at the 8 ocean colour bands. The optical model is sufficiently accurate to capture the remote-sensing reflectance that would arise from a specific biogeochemical state. Thus the mismatch between simulated and observed remote-sensing reflectance provides an excellent metric for model assessment of the coupled biogeochemical model. Finally, we combine simulated remote-sensing reflectance in a red/green/blue colour model to produce simulated true colour images during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Yasi in February 2011.
Numerous studies have documented declines in the abundance of reef-building corals over the last several decades and in some but not all cases, phase shifts to dominance by macroalgae have occurred. These assessments, however, often ignore the remainder of the benthos and thus provide limited information on the present-day structure and function of coral reef communities. Here, using an unprecedentedly large dataset collected within the last 10 years across 56 islands spanning five archipelagos in the central Pacific, we examine how benthic reef communities differ in the presence and absence of human populations. Using islands as replicates, we examine whether benthic community structure is associated with human habitation within and among archipelagos and across latitude. While there was no evidence for coral to macroalgal phase shifts across our dataset we did find that the majority of reefs on inhabited islands were dominated by fleshy non-reef-building organisms (turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and non-calcifying invertebrates). By contrast, benthic communities from uninhabited islands were more variable but in general supported more calcifiers and active reef builders (stony corals and crustose coralline algae). Our results suggest that cumulative human impacts across the central Pacific may be causing a reduction in the abundance of reef builders resulting in island scale phase shifts to dominance by fleshy organisms.
Coral reefs have recently experienced an unprecedented decline as the world's oceans continue to warm. Yet global climate models reveal a heterogeneously warming ocean, which has initiated a search for refuges, where corals may survive in the near future. We hypothesized that some turbid nearshore environments may act as climate-change refuges, shading corals from the harmful interaction between high sea-surface temperatures and high irradiance. We took a hierarchical Bayesian approach to determine the expected distribution of 12 coral species in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, between the latitudes 37°N and 37°S, under representative concentration pathway 8.5 (W m−2) by 2100. The turbid nearshore refuges identified in this study were located between latitudes 20–30°N and 15–25°S, where there was a strong coupling between turbidity and tidal fluctuations. Our model predicts that turbidity will mitigate high temperature bleaching for 9% of shallow reef habitat (to 30 m depth) – habitat that was previously considered inhospitable under ocean warming. Our model also predicted that turbidity will protect some coral species more than others from climate-change-associated thermal stress. We also identified locations where consistently high turbidity will likely reduce irradiance to <250 μmol m−2 s−1, and predict that 16% of reef-coral habitat ≤30 m will preclude coral growth and reef development. Thus, protecting the turbid nearshore refuges identified in this study, particularly in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the northern Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands (Japan), eastern Vietnam, western and eastern Australia, New Caledonia, the northern Red Sea, and the Arabian Gulf, should become part of a judicious global strategy for reef-coral persistence under climate change.
This report provides a socioeconomic profile of recreation users in California’s Northern Central Coast Region, which includes the Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and the northern portion of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary is also located within the region but there was not enough information obtained to do a profile for this sanctuary.
The information used here was from a study conducted by Ecotrust for the State of California’s Monitoring Enterprise’s North Central Coast (NCC) MPA Baseline Program. Point97 (Ecotrust’s small business unit) provided all the data and documentation so we could estimate how much of the recreation activity in the NCC region was done in national marine sanctuaries. The study was done covering the activity in the year 2011.
A socioeconomic profile includes demographics (e.g. age, race/ethnicity, gender, education level, household income, household size, and place of residence) of the users; the amount of use by type of recreation activity; and the spending in the local economy while doing the recreation activity, and how that spending generates output/sales, value- added, income and employment in the local economy.
The report compares profiles of the users of the entire NCC region with users of the GFNMS and the users of the northern portion of MBNMS, and between the GFNMS and the northern portion of MBNMS. Statistically significant differences are highlighted.
In many lower-income countries, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) involves significant opportunity costs for artisanal fishers, reflected in changes in how they allocate their labor in response to the MPA. The resource economics literature rarely addresses such labor allocation decisions of artisanal fishers and how, in turn, these contribute to the impact of MPAs on fish stocks, yield, and income. This paper develops a spatial bio-economic model of a fishery adjacent to a village of people who allocate their labor between fishing and on-shore wage opportunities to establish a spatial Nash equilibrium at a steady state fish stock in response to various locations for no-take zone MPAs and managed access MPAs. Villagers’ fishing location decisions are based on distance costs, fishing returns, and wages. Here, the MPA location determines its impact on fish stocks, fish yield, and villager income due to distance costs, congestion, and fish dispersal. Incorporating wage labor opportunities into the framework allows examination of the MPA’s impact on rural incomes, with results determining that win-wins between yield and stocks occur in very different MPA locations than do win-wins between income and stocks. Similarly, villagers in a high-wage setting face a lower burden from MPAs than do those in low-wage settings. Motivated by issues of central importance in Tanzania and Costa Rica, we impose various policies on this fishery – location specific no-take zones, increasing on-shore wages, and restricting MPA access to a subset of villagers – to analyze the impact of an MPA on fish stocks and rural incomes in such settings.