The second regional workshop on Caribbean Billfish Management and Conservation of the WECAFC/OSPESCA/CRFM/CFMC Working Group on Recreational Fisheries was held in Panama City, Panama, from 9 to 11 November 2015. 53 experts attended the workshop from 19 Caribbean countries and territories as well as from different organizations and projects. Preliminary findings of six field and desk studies were presented and discussed on the status of Caribbean billfish stocks and fisheries, the value of billfish recreational and commercial fisheries, on rights based approaches in recreational and commercial fisheries, the national legal frameworks for fisheries in the Caribbean and on the application of the WECAFC Manual on Assessment of the Economic Impact of Recreational Fisheries in The Bahamas and Martinique. Other presentations included in the report comprised the first outline of the table of contents, and of possible regional management measures, to be included in the Caribbean Regional Billfish Management and Conservation Plan. The report describes the selection procedure of the two pilot countries to test and validate co-management arrangements and right based approaches, and participants revised the Terms of Reference of the Working Group on Recreational Fisheries and elected its Convener. The accomplished work was under the guidance and supervision of FAO’s Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission (WECAFC) with the support of the Caribbean Billfish Project GCP/SLC/001/WBK.
This report provides an assessment of the current state of potential offshore wind generation in the southeastern United States. Analysis in this report aims to provide input to our client, Southern Company, on expanding their renewable generation portfolio. While offshore wind has begun to thrive in the European Union, the United States, with significantly larger areas of available land, has largely avoided offshore installations in favor of cheaper onshore farms. However, there is significant offshore wind potential in the coastal areas of the U.S. including the southeast where our client, Southern Company, operates. Numerous considerations including endangered wildlife, limited policy incentives, and widespread stakeholder impacts have kept offshore wind from becoming practical in the U.S. Emerging new technologies, more consistent operation, and careful planning and siting may allow a utility with a large customer base and significant influence like Southern Company to overcome the financial hurdles involved in construction and installation of wind farms. Limited federal and state policies within Southern Company’s service region, however, remain a significant challenge and will likely keep offshore wind as an unfavorable source of renewable energy for the foreseeable future.
In ADRIPLAN we run an experiment, almost free from the complicated align- ment of different national political decisions, but involving the local govern institutions closer to stakeholders’ and citizens’ needs, i.e. the Regions. All the main economic sectors were took into consideration and most of them participated actively to this experiment. The result is represented in this book. It is not a “real” Plan, as it is not binding for anyone, and does not involves or implies any endorsement of the Public Authorities (at any level) in the AIR.
Nevertheless, ADRIPLAN is a “realistic” experiment, where the actual needs, desires, perspectives coming from the territories faced to the Adriatic and Ionian seas were taken into consideration.
Please note the attached full-text PDF is ~85 MB.
Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is often discussed by fisheries managers and stakeholders as a potential goal. EBFM is based on a multi-species approach, which varies significantly from the single species fisheries management (SSFM) approach currently practiced under the U.S. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA). EBFM is “holistic” and considers “all factors,” but it is impossible for management to incorporate all factors into EBFM. This study sought to improve understanding of factors contributing to or preventing progress toward EBFM implementation in the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC) and New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC), focusing on Council member and stakeholder beliefs, attitudes, and mutual understanding. Objectives included determining mutual understanding between MAFMC and NEFMC members and stakeholders about EBFM and identifying MAFMC and NEFMC member and stakeholder preferences for EBFM definitions, practices, and outcomes, and prioritizing which aspects of EBFM managers and stakeholders find most important. Stakeholders included commercial fishermen, recreational anglers, nongovernmental organization (NGO) leaders, and Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) members. Over 1000 survey responses about EBFM from council members and stakeholders in the Mid-Atlantic (MA) and New England (NE) regions were analyzed. The Coorientation Model was used to characterize understanding between the Council and fisheries-related stakeholder groups. For the MA and NE regions, most stakeholders agreed on definitions, practices, and possible outcomes for EBFM. Results suggest that most Council members and stakeholders in the MA and NE regions support a change from SSFM to EBFM at an incremental, intermediate, or complete, gradual (5–10 years) pace. The application of the Coorientation Model to EBFM and the fishery management councils provided insights into how an improved understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and mutual comprehension of Council members and stakeholder groups could potentially facilitate the implementation of EBFM. Council members and stakeholders responded similarly to, and Council members correctly predicted stakeholder responses about, EBFM definitions, practices, and outcomes. These findings suggest that Council member and stakeholder agreement and understanding are not barriers to MAFMC and NEFMC adoption of EBFM.
Ocean acidification is projected to lower the Ωar of reef waters by 0.3-0.4 units by the end of century making it more difficult for calcifying organisms to secrete calcium carbonate while at the same time making the environment more favorable for abiotic and biotic dissolution of the reef framework. There is great interest in being able to project the point in time when coral reefs will cross the tipping point between being net depositional to net erosional in terms of their carbonate budgets. Periodic in situ assessments of the balance between carbonate production and dissolution that spans seasonal time scales may prove useful in monitoring and formulating projections of the impact of ocean acidification on reef carbonate production. This study represents the first broad scale geochemical survey of the rates of net community production (NCP) and net community calcification (NCC) across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). Surveys were performed at approximately quarterly intervals in 2009-10 across seven onshore-offshore transects spanning the upper, middle and lower Florida Keys. Averaged across the FRT, the rates of NCP and NCC were positive during the spring/summer at 62 ± 7 and 17 ± 2 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively, and negative during the fall/winter at -33 ± 6 and -7 ± 2 mmol m-2 d-1. The most significant finding of the study was that the northern-most reef is already net erosional (-1.1 ± 0.4 kg CaCO3 m-2 y-1) and mid-reefs to the south were net depositional on an annual basis (0.4 ± 0.1 kg CaCO3 m-2 y-1) but erosional during the fall and winter. Only the two southern-most reefs were net depositional year-round. These results indicate that parts of the FRT have already crossed the tipping point for carbonate production and other parts are getting close.
Anthropogenically forced trends in oceanic dissolved oxygen are evaluated in Earth system models in the context of natural variability. A large ensemble of a single Earth system model is used to clearly identify the forced component of change in interior oxygen distributions and to evaluate the magnitude of this signal relative to noise generated by internal climate variability. The time of emergence of forced trends is quantified on the basis of anomalies in oxygen concentrations and trends. We find that the forced signal should already be evident in the southern Indian Ocean and parts of the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic basins; widespread detection of forced deoxygenation is possible by 2030–2040. In addition to considering spatially discrete metrics of detection, we evaluate the similarity of the spatial structures associated with natural variability and the forced trend. Outside of the subtropics, these patterns are not wholly distinct on the isopycnal surfaces considered, and therefore, this approach does not provide significantly advanced detection. Our results clearly demonstrate the strong impact of natural climate variability on interior oxygen distributions, providing an important context for interpreting observations.
One of the most important goals in current fisheries management is to maintain or restore stocks above levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). However, it may not be feasible to achieve MSY simultaneously for multiple species because of trade-offs that result from interactions between species, mixed fisheries and the multiple objectives of stakeholders. The premise in this study is that MSY is a concept that needs adaptation, not wholesale replacement. The approach chosen to identify trade-offs and stakeholder preferences involved a process of consulting and discussing options with stakeholders as well as scenario modelling with bio-economic and multi-species models. It is difficult to intuitively anticipate the consequences of complex trade-offs and it is also complicated to address them from a political point of view. However, scenario modelling showed that the current approach of treating each stock separately and ignoring trade-offs may result in unacceptable ecosystem, economic or social effects in North Sea fisheries. Setting FMSY as a management target without any flexibility for compromises may lead to disappointment for some of the stakeholders. To treat FMSY no longer as a point estimate but rather as a “Pretty Good Yield” within sustainable ranges was seen as a promising way forward to avoid unacceptable outcomes when trying to fish all stocks simultaneously at FMSY. This study gives insights on how inclusive governance can help to reach consensus in difficult political processes, and how science can be used to make informed decisions inside a multi-dimensional trade-off space.
The enhanced key-food-web offshore restoration technique by wall roughening is proposed in this approach. Three kinds of wall roughening, i.e. artificial reefs, hard slope roughing and the integration of artificial reefs and hard slope roughing are applied to enhance the original key-food-web offshore restoration technique. The effects of ecological rehabilitation of the proposed enhanced key-food-web offshore restoration technique are predicted by the models of Ecopath model and ocean health index. The results indicate that the ecological rehabilitation of the enhanced key-food-web offshore restoration technique with different wall roughening is better than that of the original one. Among them, the enhanced key-food-web offshore restoration technique with the integration of artificial reefs and hard slope roughing is the best. After using it, the restored offshore ecosystem is the most mature, and the ocean health index is increased to 87.1 or 87.3 with respect to the case of 2% or 0.57% artificial reef for the conservative or optimistic analysis.
How and to what extent do international organizations detect, process and react to different types of change within their policy domains? This study addresses this question by combining a unique data set consisting of policy documents from the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) with data measuring ecosystem change in the Baltic Sea during the period 1980–2013. Here HELCOM's responses to two types of ecosystem changes are investigated: fast and visible (summer algae blooms) and slow and opaque (anoxic areas). Finally, this study assesses if the organizational reform of 2007, which introduced the ecosystem approach, has had any effects on HELCOM responsiveness. It is found that HELCOM, contrary to expectations, is only responding systematically to slow-moving and opaque processes but that this response confirms the anticipated organizational bottom-up pattern. The ecosystem approach reform seems to have had a negative effect on the responsiveness of HELCOM; however, a general trend is that HELCOM over time has become more responsive in the lower levels of the organization. The lack of an immediate effect regarding the ecosystem approach reform can serve as a reminder of the absence of panaceas in policy making in general, and in environmental governance in particular.
To date there has been no evaluation of the capabilities of the Baltic Sea ecosystem models to provide information as outlined by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This work aims to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring the modelling potential of nine Baltic Sea ecosystem models to support this specific European policy and, in particular, models' capabilities to inform on marine biodiversity. Several links are found between the Model-Derived Indicators and some of the relevant biodiversity-related descriptors (i.e. biological diversity and food webs), and pressures (i.e. interference with hydrological processes, nutrient and organic matter enrichment and marine acidification). However several gaps remain, in particular in the limited representation of habitats other than the pelagic that the models are able to address for descriptor sea-floor integrity and inability to assess descriptor non-indigenous species. The general outcome is that the Baltic Sea models considered do not adequately cover all the requested needs of the MSFD, but can potentially do so to a certain extent, while for some descriptors/criteria/indicators/pressures new indicators and/or modelling techniques need to be developed in order to satisfactorily address the requirement of the MSFD and assess the environmental status of the Baltic Sea.