2016-05-25

Addressing Interactions between Fisheries and Offshore Wind Development: The Block Island Wind Farm

Lipsky A, Moura S, Kenney A, Bellavance R. Addressing Interactions between Fisheries and Offshore Wind Development: The Block Island Wind Farm. Boston, Massachusetts: SeaPlan; 2016 p. 12 pp.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) is a 30-megawatt offshore wind farm located in Rhode Island waters approximately three miles southeast of Block Island. The BIWF consists of five offshore wind turbine generators and a submarine cable to Block Island. Deepwater Wind Block Island, LLC (DWBI), sited the BIWF within the Renewable Energy Zone established by the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) through a well described comprehensive marine spatial planning process: the Ocean Special Area Management Plan (OSAMP; CRMC 2010). Construction of the BIWF began in 2015 and is scheduled for completion in 2016. When fully installed, the BIWF will generate over 125,000 megawatt hours of power annually, enough to satisfy 17,200 Rhode Island households (Tetra Tech 2012). Associated with the BIWF is the “sea2shore: The Renewable Link” (sea2shore; previously known as the “Block Island Transmission System”), a bi-directional cable system that will connect Block Island to the mainland electric grid for the first time.

Building off of work conducted as part of the OSAMP, DWBI made it a priority early in the project planning process to work with the commercial fishing industry, including recreational charter and party boat industries, to better understand potential impacts, minimize impacts, and develop mitigation measures. Starting in 2012, the DWBI team designed and initiated an outreach, impact minimization, and mitigation effort, the implementation of which is ongoing. Highlights of this effort include the following:

  • Open meetings with the fishing community

  • Meetings with the CRMC Fisheries Advisory Board (FAB)

  • Meeting with individual fishing groups to discuss ways to avoid and minimize impact

  • Establishment of fisheries and science liaisons

  • An outreach and engagement process to inventory and evaluate potential fishery and fishing impacts

  • Long-term collaborative groundfish and lobster studies with fishermen before, during, and after wind farm construction

  • Development of a unique mitigation framework to address potential impacts

  • A mitigation package that includes an innovative marketing campaign to promote charter and party boat fishing in Rhode Island and funding of an Executive Director of the Commercial Fisheries Center of Rhode Island

  • A process to compensate fishermen impacted by closure of an area during foundation installation

This paper summarizes the fisheries outreach program and highlights strategies that were effective in minimizing conflict and establishing a collaborative relationship between DWBI and Rhode Island commercial and recreational fishing communities. As DWBI completes the BIWF construction and moves into the operations phase, lessons learned from the BIWF engagement model, mitigation framework, and collaborative data collection will be helpful to inform future offshore wind developments in the United States. 

A research framework for traditional fisheries: Revisited

Pomeroy R. A research framework for traditional fisheries: Revisited. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;70:153 - 163. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16302949
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper revisits the 1979 seminal work of Ian Smith and the research agenda for small-scale fisheries which identified areas of research which would have the greatest potential for contributing to the solution of problems facing small-scale fisheries and their communities. The paper provides an historical perspective on the changing issues and research and development agendas for small-scale fisheries over the last fifty years. Several suggested research priorities on small-scale fisheries for the next decade are identified including overcapacity, livelihoods, markets and secure and resilient communities.

Assessing potential spatial and temporal conflicts in Washington's marine waters

Freeman MC, Whiting L, Kelly RP. Assessing potential spatial and temporal conflicts in Washington's marine waters. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;70:137 - 144. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16302512
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper uses spatial, temporal, and use-intensity data for 27 major marine uses in Washington waters to feature a method for assessing potential use conflicts in a variety of scenarios. The study represents a first step towards quantifying potential conflicts within Washington’s Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) study area by using a cumulative analysis to highlight high- and low-use intensity areas and the novel Marine Potential Conflict Index (MPCI), which incorporates space, time, and intensity of use, to quantify pairwise potential conflicts between uses. About 10% of pairs of uses do not overlap spatially and are likely compatible with one another. Temporally, the number of uses peaks in July and August and falls during January and February. Additionally, the MPCI identified three important use types with a substantial degree of potential conflict: commercial fishing, tribal fishing, and shipping. External data were used in three cases to ground-truth the analysis, as a limited test of its utility in managing any potential conflict. This article assesses the extent of Washington’s existing marine uses along spatial, temporal, and intensity axes, and more broadly provides a straightforward way to examine potential conflicts between marine uses.

The response of the North Sea demersal fish community to changing fishing pressure as seen through the prism of the large fish indicator

Stamoulis A, Torreele E. The response of the North Sea demersal fish community to changing fishing pressure as seen through the prism of the large fish indicator. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2016 ;181:222 - 233. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783616301369
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The large fish indicator (LFI) is a size-based indicator of fish community state. In the North Sea, the LFI is already established as the fish community’s Ecological Quality Objective (OSPAR-EcoQO). The LFI has also been proposed as an indicator for food webs and for monitoring of biodiversity in European regional seas. The LFI was developed based on the entire North Sea fish community, which ignores the differences between the southern and the northern fish communities from the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data. In this study, we have calculated LFIs based on IBTS and the Beam Trawl Survey (BTS), which target different components of the fish community and we test whether the LFI responds to changes in fishing pressure. The results did not confirm our expectation of a negative correlation between the pressure and state. We found a positive relationship between the IBTS-based LFI and the roundfish fishing mortality as well as an inverse relationship between the BTS-based LFI and the flatfish fishing mortality. The differences in the relationships between the IBTS- and BTS-based LFI and the respective roundfish-averaged and flatfish-averaged fishing mortality confirmed the spatial differences between the North Sea roundfish and flatfish fish communities. Although previous relationships between the LFI and the fishing pressure involved lengthy time-lags (10–12 years), we found shorter responsiveness of the LFI of 1–2 years. Further understanding of the ecological, environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the LFI is required before ecosystem objectives can be set within the MSFD.

The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico

Meng Q. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2016 ;565:663 - 671. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716310270
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations.

The effects of changing spatial scales on spatial patterns of CPUE for Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean

Feng Y, Chen X, Liu Y. The effects of changing spatial scales on spatial patterns of CPUE for Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2016 ;183:1 - 12. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783616301436
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

It has been argued that most of the problems concerning fisheries and aquaculture may be rooted in spatial differentiation, and the spatial patterns of fisheries resources have been widely studied. However, there is a general lack of awareness on how changing spatial scales affect the spatial patterns of fisheries resources. This study explores the scaling relations of spatial patterns of the catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Several spatial indices commonly used to explore the spatial patterns of fisheries were examined, including the count of valid data points (Count index), global Moran’s I, Geary’s C, General G, the average nearest neighbor (ANN) ratio and Ripley’s K function at different spatial scales. The results show that the Count index and the z-scores of three spatial indices (i.e. Moran’s I, General G and ANN) exhibit consistent and robust power law relations, while the z-scores of Geary’s C and ANN ratio exhibit consistent and robust logarithmic relations. General G exhibits consistent and robust linear functions in September and October and a quadratic polynomial function in August. The spatial patterns observed from Ripley’s K-function become less clustered at coarser spatial scales. Based on the peaks of Moran's I and the nadirs of Geary’s C, we identified 25′ × 25′ as the optimum scale for August and October and 20′ × 20′ for September, and 50′ × 50′ as the coarsest allowable spatial scale for August and October and 55′ × 55′ for September, for conducting spatial analysis of O. bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The methodology presented in this research provides a useful reference to understand the scaling effect and search for the coarsest spatial scale for the survey of fisheries resources.

A tale of two communities: Using relational place-making to examine fisheries policy in the Pribilof Island communities of St. George and St. Paul, Alaska

Lyons C, Carothers C, Reedy K. A tale of two communities: Using relational place-making to examine fisheries policy in the Pribilof Island communities of St. George and St. Paul, Alaska. Maritime Studies [Internet]. 2016 ;15(1). Available from: http://maritimestudiesjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40152-016-0045-1
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper describes how relational place-making, with its focus on power dynamics, networked politics, and non-market, locally-valued characteristics, provides a useful framework for managers to better design fishing community policies. Social data, while becoming more common in fisheries management analyses, are typically restricted to quantitative measures that often cannot adequately summarize dynamics within fishing communities. In contrast, detailed ethnographic research and the theoretical framework of relational place-making can provide a useful methodology through which to gather social data to understand resource-dependent communities and the effects of fisheries management policies in these places. Relational place-making describes the process through which physical spaces are transformed into socially meaningful places, and how these understandings are contested and negotiated among different groups of actors. These contested narratives of place, called place-frames, can interact with economic development efforts to help create (or fail to create) sustainable communities. To better understand the efficacy of a specific fisheries policy, the community development quota (CDQ) program, we conducted 6 months of ethnographic research in the rural, Native communities of St. George and St. Paul, Alaska. In both communities we found that local place-frames centered on local empowerment and control. In St. George, local place-frames conflicted with place-frames advanced by CDQ employees, and locals were unable to align place-making goals with local economic realities. In St. Paul, local residents and CDQ employees shared a place-frame, allowing them to accomplish numerous local development goals. However, differences in place-frames advanced by other political entities on the island often complicated development initiatives. This study supports previous research indicating that policies and development projects that increase local power and self-determination are most successful in furthering community sustainability and well-being. This study indicates that relational place-making can illuminate local goals and desires and is therefore of great utility to the fisheries management decision-making process.

Observing and managing seascapes: linking synoptic oceanography, ecological processes, and geospatial modelling

Hidalgo M, Secor DH, Browman HI. Observing and managing seascapes: linking synoptic oceanography, ecological processes, and geospatial modelling. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2016 :fsw079. Available from: http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/05/19/icesjms.fsw079
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The capacity to observe, retrieve, and model the physiographical and hydrographical features of the sea (i.e. seascapes) has surpassed our ability to integrate this information into the assessment and stewardship of marine ecosystems. However, current marine policy that mandates integrated ecosystem assessments demands temporally intensive and spatially extensive predictions of key populations and ecosystem processes and services, particularly those related to habitat use and distribution. In this sense, seascape ecology represents an operational linkage between basic oceanography and applied ecology and management that embraces spatially explicit models of the dynamic distributions of populations, communities and foodwebs through a joint consideration of observational data and ecological processes. For these reasons, the ICES Journal of Marine Science solicited contributions to the article theme set, “Frontiers in seascape ecology”. In this introduction, we present current concepts and developments in seascape ecology, briefly summarize the 10 articles that appear herein, and discuss the most relevant challenges to this nascent discipline. The contributions included in this theme set illustrate the growing relevance of seascape ecology in the multidisciplinary management of marine ecosystems.

Parasitic infection: a buffer against ocean acidification?

MacLeod CD, Poulin R. Parasitic infection: a buffer against ocean acidification?. Biology Letters [Internet]. 2016 ;12(5):20160007. Available from: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/5/20160007
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recently, there has been a concerted research effort by marine scientists to quantify the sensitivity of marine organisms to ocean acidification (OA). Empirical data generated by this research have been used to predict changes to marine ecosystem health, biodiversity and productivity that will be caused by continued acidification. These studies have also found that the effects of OA on marine organisms can be significantly modified by additional abiotic stressors (e.g. temperature or oxygen) and biotic interactions (e.g. competition or predation). To date, however, the effects of parasitic infection on the sensitivity of marine organisms to OA have been largely ignored. We show that parasitic infection significantly altered the response of a marine gastropod to simulated OA conditions by reducing the mortality of infected individuals relative to uninfected conspecifics. Without the inclusion of infection data, our analysis would not have detected the significant effect of pH on host mortality. These results strongly suggest that parasitic infection may be an important confounding factor in OA research and must be taken into consideration when assessing the response of marine species to OA.

Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities

Wyles KJ, Pahl S, Holland M, Thompson RC. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities. Environment and Behavior [Internet]. 2016 . Available from: http://eab.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/05/17/0013916516649412
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals’ behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students (n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2016-05-25