2016-06-01

Modeling Oceanic Transport of Floating Marine Debris

Anon. Modeling Oceanic Transport of Floating Marine Debris. Silver Spring, Maryland: NOAA Marine Debris Program; 2016 p. 21 pp. Available from: https://marinedebris.noaa.gov/reports/modeling-oceanic-transport-floating-marine-debris
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Understanding the movement of debris allows us to have a better grasp on how it might distribute and accumulate within our ocean and on our shores.This report reviews the scientific literature that exists on the subject and outlines the methods that are available to gain this sort of insight.

The following overview presents some of the numerical modeling techniques that have been applied to simulate the transport of marine debris. The primary approach to modeling the transport of drifting objects, with marine debris being one application, typically has involved the use of particle tracking models (PTMs) to estimate or simulate the movement of ‘particles’ over time. This movement depends on transport (advection) by ocean surface currents, and some PTMs may incorporate additional factors such as movement resulting from the proportion of buoyant objects floating high in the water and exposed to the wind (windage), or a random motion component (turbulent diffusion).

Standards and the Blue Economy

Potts J, Wilkings A, Lynch M, McFatridge S. Standards and the Blue Economy. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD); 2016. Available from: http://www.iisd.org/ssi/standards-and-the-blue-economy/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The SSI Review: Standards and the Blue Economy takes a deep dive into the market and performance trends of the 9 most prevalent seafood certification schemes operating in the wild catch and aquaculture sectors. The Review provides a reference point for buyers, producers, policy makers and consumers in deciding how best to apply voluntary standards in their own decision-making processes. 

Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Stormwater BMPs and Recommended BMP Design Considerations in Coastal Communities

Anon. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Stormwater BMPs and Recommended BMP Design Considerations in Coastal Communities. Sandwich, MA: Horsley Witten Group, Inc.; 2015. Available from: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/czm/program-areas/coastal-water-quality/cpr/climate-change-stormwater-bmps.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Coastal areas are vulnerable to flooding and storm damage—issues that are magnified by climate change and sea level rise. When located in coastal areas, stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are subject to flooding, storm damage, and salt and wind exposure. These impacts are expected to increase over time due to sea level rise, higher groundwater levels, and more frequent and intense storms due to climate change. To help communities address these impacts, the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM), in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, funded the development of Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Stormwater BMPs and Recommended BMP Design Considerations in Coastal Communities.

Commercial Marine Shipping Accidents: Understanding the Risks in Canada

Anon. Commercial Marine Shipping Accidents: Understanding the Risks in Canada. Ottawa: Council of Canadian Academies; 2016. Available from: http://www.scienceadvice.ca/en/assessments/completed/marineshippingrisks.aspx
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Recognizing the need for consensus-building research in this area, the Clear Seas Centre for Responsible Marine Shipping asked the Council of Canadian Academies to convene an expert workshop to identify the risks associated with commercial marine shipping in major Canadian shipping regions. The final workshop report, Commercial Marine Shipping Accidents: Understanding the Risks in Canada, identifies the risks of commercial marine shipping accidents across Canada’s regions and for different cargo types, while highlighting gaps in understanding and areas for further research.

The workshop report brings together perspectives from academia, government, and industry and is informed by evidence from a survey of the marine shipping community and an extensive review of the existing literature. It can be used as a tool for policy-makers to help inform decisions related to managing the risks of commercial marine shipping accidents. Overall, this workshop report seeks to contribute to a national dialogue about acceptable levels of risk in commercial marine shipping.

Science, Information, and Policy Interface for Effective Coastal and Ocean Management

MacDonald BH, Soomai SS, De Santo EM, Wells PG eds. Science, Information, and Policy Interface for Effective Coastal and Ocean Management. CRC Press; 2016 p. 474 pp. Available from: https://www.crcpress.com/Science-Information-and-Policy-Interface-for-Effective-Coastal-and-Ocean/MacDonald-Soomai-De-Santo-Wells/p/book/9781498731706
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

This book provides a timely analysis of the role that information—particularly scientific information—plays in the policy-making and decision-making processes in coastal and ocean management. It includes contributions from global experts in marine environmental science, marine policy, fisheries, public policy and administration, resource management, risk management, and information management.

Contribution of social science to large scale biodiversity conservation: A review of research about the Natura 2000 network

Blicharska M, Orlikowska EH, Roberge J-M, Grodzinska-Jurczak M. Contribution of social science to large scale biodiversity conservation: A review of research about the Natura 2000 network. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2016 ;199:110 - 122. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320716301884
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Journal Article

Successful conservation needs to be informed by social science because it is closely linked to socio-economic processes and human behaviour. Limited knowledge about ecosystems' interactions with these processes currently undermines conservation efforts. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of social science concerning the world's largest multinationally-coordinated conservation infrastructure: the European Ecological Network - ‘Natura 2000’. Based on a review of 149 publications, we analyse and discuss the main findings and outline key social-science research gaps with regard to the Natura 2000 network. The review shows that human dimension of the Natura 2000 network is complex and varies among EU Member States. In general, low level and quality of public participation in implementation of the Natura 2000 network and its management, negative public perceptions of the network, lack of flexibility of responsible authorities and insufficient consideration of the local context pose the greatest challenges to the network's functioning. Important but hitherto little studied research topics include: evaluation of participation; effects of education on potential to raise public awareness; effects of potential financing mechanisms for compensating private land-owners; economic studies on cost-effectiveness; and benefits from conservation and ecosystem services. These knowledge gaps will need to be filled for the Natura 2000 network to reach its goals.

Coastal and marine tourism: A challenging factor in Marine Spatial Planning

Papageorgiou M. Coastal and marine tourism: A challenging factor in Marine Spatial Planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2016 ;129:44 - 48. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569116300965
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coastal and marine space is “home” to a constantly growing number of human activities and facilities, the most important of which are those related to coastal and marine tourism. Being one of the largest segments of the maritime economic sectors, as well as the largest component of the tourism industry, coastal and marine tourism often raise controversy regarding the environmental impacts and the compatibilities with other human activities.

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), is considered to be a promising procedure in tackling developmental and management issues related to the oceans and seas, and thus issues related to coastal and marine tourism. Indeed the present paper argues over the significant role of MSP in organizing and planning coastal and marine tourism activities and especially in ensuring: a) good environmental conditions for the tourism industry to prosper, b) quality of seascapes and coastal landscapes and other resources of importance to tourism, c) adaptation to climate change effects, d) spatial regulations so that coastal and marine space is not overwhelmed by tourism facilities and activities and e) wise allocation of human uses in the coastal zone so as to avoid conflicts and create synergies among sectors.

Fisheries management approaches as platforms for climate change adaptation: Comparing theory and practice in Australian fisheries

Ogier EM, Davidson J, Fidelman P, Haward M, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Hoshino E, Pecl GT. Fisheries management approaches as platforms for climate change adaptation: Comparing theory and practice in Australian fisheries. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;71:82 - 93. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16302962
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study examines the extent to which the choice of management approach is a critical factor in enabling climate change adaptation in marine fisheries. Climate change is expected to compound many pressing issues affecting fisheries management. Good governance of fisheries, which is critical to building their adaptive capacity and social-ecological resilience, is seen as ever more important in the context of climate change. A range of fisheries management approaches have been developed and, to varying degrees, applied. Each has been described in the literature as a promising way to manage marine resources. Through literature reviews and a survey of practitioners, this study explores how theoretical properties of selected major management approaches (i.e., ecosystem-based management, adaptive management, co-management, adaptive co-management, and active adaptive management) enable climate change adaptation, and how such properties are perceived by practitioners to manifest in practice using an Australian marine fisheries context. Overall, the selected management approaches have the potential to enable climate change adaptation to varying degrees. Ecosystem-based management, in combination with adaptive management and co-management as nested management approaches, possesses the full array of adaptation capacities and attributes required for adaptation in fisheries. Distinctions between theory and practice observed in this study highlight the importance of practitioner perceptions and enabling institutional arrangements in adapting management to climate change.

Catch shares have not led to catch-quota balancing in two North American multispecies trawl fisheries

Kuriyama PT, Branch TA, Bellman MA, Rutherford K. Catch shares have not led to catch-quota balancing in two North American multispecies trawl fisheries. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;71:60 - 70. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16302925
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Catch shares, where annual catch limits are divided among individuals, communities or cooperatives, are a commonly used fisheries management strategy to increase profits and reduce overcapitalization. Usually these quota shares can be sold or leased, which is theorized to allow for greater utilization of fleet-wide quota. However, this catch-quota balancing may not be achieved in multispecies trawl fisheries where it is difficult to selectively target valuable species while avoiding overfished species. Two similar catch-share-managed, multispecies trawl fisheries were compared to evaluate whether catch shares lead to catch-quota balancing. The U.S. West Coast Groundfish fishery has several species with low total allowable catches (TACs) while the Canadian British Columbia Trawl fishery has comparatively higher TACs. Results indicate that the West Coast fishery had a statistically significant decrease in catch-quota ratios from 0.41 in the three years before catch shares to 0.29 in the three years after catch shares. In contrast, the BC fishery experience no statistically significant change in fishery-wide average catch-quota ratios, which were 0.70 in the three years before and 0.62 in the three years after catch shares. In the West Coast fishery, the risk of exceeding quotas for some species may be so high that fishers are unable to achieve high degrees of catch-quota balancing and instead focus on species that can be easily selected with changes in fishing behavior. Multispecies fisheries management has direct tradeoffs between maximizing yield and achieving conservation goals, and these results may highlight the tradeoff between rebuilding overfished species by reducing TACs, and the achievement of catch-quota balancing.

Local and regional experiences with assessing and fostering ocean health

Blasiak R, Pacheco E, Furuya K, Golden CD, Jauharee ARiyaz, Natori Y, Saito H, Sinan H, Tanaka T, Yagi N, et al. Local and regional experiences with assessing and fostering ocean health. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;71:54 - 59. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16302937
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

During the international symposium on “Regional Applications and Nexus of the Ocean Health Index” at The University of Tokyo in Japan in July 2015, a range of experts, practitioners and researchers discussed the potential for assessing the current state of ocean health at different scales, as well as changes over time. Discussions focused on how the successful assessment and implementation of projects aimed at fostering ocean health and resilient coastal ecosystems strongly depends on a multi-stakeholder approach and local leadership. In addition, recent examples of regional independent assessments conducted using the Ocean Health Index were introduced, with an accompanying explanation of how the Index goals can be adjusted, specified or weighted in line with a local context or policy direction. This manuscript introduces key points raised during the symposium as well as relevant supplementary materials.

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