Tourism in general, and cruise tourism in particular, constitute an attractive developmental option for emerging, postcommunist, and/or postindustrial economies. Yet existing tourism-related literature on destination development focuses on rather generic theoretical concepts (e.g., Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle, 6As, and Cluster Theory) coupled by an array of explorative case studies. From a policy-making perspective, bridging the gap between operationalizing generic theoretical/analytical frameworks while generalizing from a fragmented case study body of knowledge to plan meaningful action, represents a challenge. Within the context of an EU-funded cruise tourism development project for the Black Sea region, this article utilizes action research to meet this challenge and subsequently proposes complementary (to the analytical existing frameworks) organizational concepts and implementation guidelines. The aim here is to provide a more complete, applicable set of tools for destination development practitioners. Moreover, in terms of facilitating destination development, our research proposes a modified role for higher education institutions, which extends beyond merely that of a "labor supplier" to that of a driver for the "learning destination."
Many studies have shown that vessel traffic has both long- and short-term negative effects on marine mammals. Although there has been a great expansion of recreational vessel traffic in the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades, few studies focused on this problem. Here, Bayesian models were used to explore the influence of vessel traffic on behaviour and relative abundance patterns of bottlenose dolphin in the Archipelago de La Maddalena (Italy), a coastal area included within the Pelagos Sanctuary. Results showed that season, moon phase and presence of calves had an effect on the number of adult dolphins per sighting, and that there were differences in occurrence in the sub-areas. On the contrary, the number of vessels was negatively related to the number of adult dolphins and their mean dive intervals. In particular, when more than three recreational boats were present in the area, dolphins surfaced more frequently per unit time and behaviours such as feeding and socializing were not detected. On the contrary, longer mean dive was found when fishing boats were present. Our results provide additional support for the need to consider disturbance such as vessel traffic in management plans for cetacean conservation.
Situated along the coast of southern China and facing the South China Sea, Hong Kong has been experiencing a significant rise in sea level by about 2.9 mm year−1 since the 1950s. For a densely populated coastal city prone to storm surge impacts during the passages of tropical cyclones, accentuated by the threat of sea-level rise as a result of global warming and local vertical land displacement, projection of the sea-level change for Hong Kong is essential for local risk assessment and long-term planning of adaptation measures. This study presented the projection of sea-level change in Hong Kong and its adjacent waters under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios in the 21st century based on climate projections by models in phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, in combination with contributions from land ice and land water storage determined from published literatures, and local vertical land displacement as estimated by using continuous high-precision GPS observations in Hong Kong. The results show that the sea level in Hong Kong and its adjacent waters is projected to rise by 0.67 (0.50–0.84) m and 0.84 (0.63–1.07) m in 2081–2100 relative to 1986–2005 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, about 0.2 m higher than the global mean values projected by the Fifth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The higher projected sea-level rise in Hong Kong and its adjacent waters as compared with the global mean values is primarily due to local vertical land displacement which contributes around 28% and 23% of the projected sea-level rise in 2081–2100 relative to 1986–2005 in the two respective RCP scenarios.
This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in ‘Big Data’ biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framework. By overcoming the data scaling problem in ecology, this integrative framework will provide richer information and fast learning to enable a deeper understanding of biodiversity evolution and dynamics in a rapidly changing world. The Atlas of Living Australia is used as one example of the advantages of progressing towards this future. Living in this future will require the adoption of new ways of integrating scientific knowledge into societal decision making.
Social studies in citizen science typically focus on existing project participants. We present results from an online survey of 1145 marine users to identify broader public interest in marine citizen science. Although we found considerable community interest, the most enthusiastic tended to have a higher education in science, were under 45 years old, primarily enjoyed SCUBA diving, and had contributed to scientific research in the past. The type of research organization involved in a project played a role in people's willingness to share information. The discourse of public participation in scientific research encourages public involvement in all aspects of the scientific process; however, we found that the respondents were primarily interested in data-collection opportunities. Feedback and past experiences in research were important considerations for gaining and retaining the volunteers. Our results indicate considerable potential for growth in volunteer recruitment, which can contribute constructively to scientific and public knowledge of the marine environment.
The human population is projected to grow to more than 9 billion by 2050. New farming and fishing techniques are continually being developed. However, food production remains restricted by the finiteness of natural resources and the rapid increase in the global population. In the future, food production may decline because of the aggravated effects of climate change. Food production will be unable to satisfy the demands of the global population, leading to a food security crisis. As the world population continues to increase, food shortages will become increasingly severe, particularly for regions located in “climate impact hot spots” in tropical and subtropical zones and for small-island countries such as Taiwan. In the present study, supply and demand are analysed to examine the risks and uncertainties associated with the impact of climate change on the domestic and imported seafood supply. First, we conduct a literature review to identify the climate risk for sea food security, and then, we analyse the domestic production of both the marine fishing catch and aquaculture. This study also examines the critical problems of the imported seafood supply and applies a comparative analysis of impact type and differences in the top 10 seafood import countries to organize adaptation strategies to climate change. Moreover, due to the type of climate impact and the differences between long-term climate impact and extreme climate impact, we collect and compile the existing climate adaptation strategies of fishery production, seafood importing, and the demand and supply of seafood in Taiwan. Finally, we perform a comparative analysis to seek any deficiencies in the existing climate adaptation strategies and offer new adaptation guidelines based on the existing climate adaptation strategies. The results show that Taiwan’s major adaptation strategies have been precautionary mitigation measures. In terms of resilience management, only the buffer stock scheme plan and the stabilization funds method are selected for some specific species to mitigate the short-term fluctuation in both yield and price for imported domestic seafood. However, we will confront uncertainties stemming from global climate change in the future; the existing climate adaptation strategies of Taiwan are still not sufficient to respond to climate impacts. For example, the climate change early warning system is still very inadequate, the existing scientific knowledge is insufficient, and the current adaptation strategies are insufficient for resolving the fluctuations in the market mechanism of seafood. According to the principles of risk management, the adaptation strategies recommended in this study can be differentiated into two categories: precautionary mitigation measures can be used to adapt to domestic production and uncertainties; such measures include avoidance, transfer, and reduction to prevent the frequency and consequences of climate change for building a resilient fisheries sector. Moreover, resilience management (e.g., risk retention) can be used to respond to uncertainties in supply for adjusting production and mitigating the risks of climate change.
Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources. This paper demonstrated the development of a detailed inventory based on GIS tools which is able to document a variety of protected areas and heritage sites along the North Bulgarian Black Sea coast with a landward extended zone 2100 m in width. The strip zone area is 182.6 km2 and circa 67% has different protection status both for natural and historical heritage. Analysis concerned compliance of national and IUCN categorisation of coastal protected areas in North Bulgaria and the degree of spatial overlapping and complementarities between nationally designated sites and Natura 2000 areas. The greatest natural and human related challenges were considered for both protected areas and historical sites, i.e. impact of tourism, management conservation issues and perspectives for future development (ecotourism). Results help in providing the key issues of conservation value and proper visitation management, to managers of coastal protected areas, tourism operators, developers and visitors on, leading towards a goal of environmental, social and economic sustainability.
The governments of the six Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have expressed their commitment to protecting marine ecosystems and improving management systems. Achieving the above commitment requires detailed baseline information on the spatial distribution and extent of the marine resources, such as seagrass meadows, coral reef, mangrove forests and seaweed beds, as well as the ability to successfully interpret and understand these data. This study examined a combination of Landsat image enhancement technique and pixel-based regional growing tools to create a map of marine and human habitats with five classes-of-interest: seagrass, land, coral and coral rubble, subsurface sand/mud, land, and human habitats for twelve islands of eastern Sabah of East Malaysia (extending from 4° 42′ N, 118° 31ʹ E to 4° 12ʹ N, 118° 50ʹ E), located in the south-eastern boundary of Palawan/North Borneo Ecoregion (extending from 14° 31ʹ N, 116° 52ʹ E to 0° 0.04ʹ N, 122° 12ʹ E) of the CTI implementation area. Using this method, an overall accuracy of >75% was achieved for mapping of those class-of-interest types. The estimated seagrass areal coverage is 274 ha, of which 158 ha (58% of the total area) occurred in relatively shallow water areas. Using Google Earth data, seaweed culture sites with a total area of 7114 ha were observed around 7 of the 12 islands. The mapping approach and the results of the study will be of immense benefit to natural resource management of the study area through enabling conservation agencies to prioritize seagrass, coral, seaweed or marine conservation sites and to document local threats to those habitats.
In many countries, the regulation of activities and development in the marine environment has begun to evolve from a compartmentalised, fragmented, sectoral and uncoordinated system into a more strategic, comprehensive, integrated and transparent one. A remaining challenge, however, is the effective integration of marine and terrestrial planning, because the tools and mechanisms necessary for its achievement have been slow to be implemented. The introduction of the England's Coastal Concordat in 2013, as a voluntary framework for better integrating marine and terrestrial planning consents, represents an atypical mechanism to secure these goals. This paper is a preliminary survey of the perceived effectiveness of the Coastal Concordat, based on a survey of 32 professionals from the terrestrial planning authorities, marine statutory agencies and marine-sector businesses. While this evaluation is made less than two years after the introduction of the Coastal Concordat, it is important to undertake a preliminary examination, from various stakeholder perspectives, of the factors likely to be influential in the integration of regulatory systems, before the approach is ‘rolled out’ across other parts of England's inter-tidal coastal zone. The results indicate that the Coastal Concordat has produced benefits for marine planning in coastal areas, but that these improvements are largely experienced within the public sector in terms of better communication, early engagement, and a single point of contact. The marine sector businesses are more neutral about the benefits of the Concordat. It is clear, however, that marine sector businesses must participate in the formulation of any reforms if an effective integrated system of planning and management of coastal environments is to be achieved.
Commercial fishermen are arguably the stakeholder group most likely to be directly impacted by the expansion of the marine renewable energy (MRE) sector. The potential opposition of fishermen may hinder the development of MRE projects and the provision of benefit schemes could to enhance acceptance. Benefit schemes refer to additional voluntary measures that are provided by a developer to local stakeholders. The aim of this study is to explore the issue of the provision of benefit packages to local fishing communities and financial compensation measures for fishermen who may be impacted by MRE projects. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen fishermen from three separate case study sites around the island of Ireland where MRE projects were being developed. In addition, ten company fisheries liaison officers (CFLOs) who have worked on MRE projects in the UK and Ireland were also interviewed. The interviews were analysed under the headings of local employment, benefits in kind, compensation and community funds and ownership of projects. Analysis shows that there is uncertainty among fishermen over whether they would benefit or gain employment from MRE. Provision of re-training schemes and preferential hiring practices could be used by MRE developers to reduce this uncertainty. There was also agreement between fishermen and CFLOs on the need for the provision of an evidence-base and a standard approach for the calculation of disruption payments. A formal structure for the provision of benefit schemes for fishermen would be useful. Furthermore, schemes that provide a range of benefits to fishermen and other stakeholders over the lifetime of a MRE project are more likely to be successful at enhancing acceptance.