2016-09-14

Exploring marine spatial planning education: Challenges in structuring transdisciplinarity

Gissi E, de Vivero JLuís Suá. Exploring marine spatial planning education: Challenges in structuring transdisciplinarity. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2016 ;74:43 - 57. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16301129
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has experienced vigorous growth on the international scale in recent years, and several practices has emerged from different countries. The demand for specific training in the preparation and implementation of marine planning has therefore already shown itself to be quite relevant on a global scale. Educational initiatives related to MSP have to respond to the increased complexity of MSP, which integrates environmental and economic perspectives on marine resources and maritime sectors, considering governance framework as well as maritime affairs and legislation.

This paper aims at addressing the educational and training needs for the development of both academic education and professional training in MSP. Learning skills, contents and methods of an ‘ideal’ MSP course are depicted from widely accepted operative guides on MSP and from the EU Framework Directive on MSP (2014/89/EU). They are considered for the analysis of the current educational offer around MSP, performed in a sample of countries that have already undergone a process of implementation of MSP by Law. As result, beside the great variety of courses, it emerges that MSP education seems to be often regarded from an environmental perspective – in continuity with Integrated Coastal Management education – while planning theory and experiences in MSP are the least represented contents. Results are discussed in relation to three major challenges: i) how educational offer reflects on transdisciplinarity, ii) the role of theory in MSP courses, and iii) the enforceability of Plans as major concern in MSP.

Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient

Kelly RP, O’Donnell JL, Lowell NC, Shelton AO, Samhouri JF, Hennessey SM, Feist BE, Williams GD. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient. PeerJ [Internet]. 2016 ;4:e2444. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/2444/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed. Counter to conventional wisdom, we find strongly increasing richness and decreasing beta diversity with greater urbanization, and similar trends in the diversity of life histories with urbanization. We also find evidence that urbanization influences nearshore communities at local (hundreds of meters) rather than regional (tens of km) scales. Given that different survey methods sample different components of an ecosystem, we then discuss the advantages of eDNA—which we use here to detect hundreds of taxa simultaneously—as a complement to traditional ecological sampling, particularly in the context of broad ecological assessments where exhaustive manual sampling is impractical. Genetic data are a powerful means of uncovering human-ecosystem interactions that might otherwise remain hidden; nevertheless, no sampling method reveals the whole of a biological community.

Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

Ardura A, Juanes F, Planes S, Garcia-Vazquez E. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2016 ;6:33013. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep33013
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

Climate change and Pacific Island food systems

Bell J, Taylor M, Amos M, Andrew N. Climate change and Pacific Island food systems. Copenhagen, Denmark and Wageningen, the Netherlands: CCAFS and CTA; 2016. Available from: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/75610
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Climate change in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) is projected to have significant impacts, including rising sea-levels, more violent tropical cyclones and droughts. Fish stocks in the tropical regions of the Pacific are expected to be directly affected by any changes that may occur in the ocean’s ecosystem. The four alternative scenarios of the future of the Pacific food systems that are reported in this booklet provide important insights into the different dimensions of the food system, including fisheries and forests, trade, affordability and consumption, and public health. The scenarios offer essential information for policy-makers, in order for them to be able to test and take steps toward developing policies that enhance resilience and strengthen adaptation to climate change among fishers and farmers in the Pacific region.

Habitat disruption by a coastal invader: local community change in Atlantic Canada sedimentary habitats

Lutz-Collins V, Cox R, Quijón PA. Habitat disruption by a coastal invader: local community change in Atlantic Canada sedimentary habitats. Marine Biology [Internet]. 2016 ;163(8). Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-016-2947-2
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

While digging and foraging, the non-indigenous green crab (Carcinus maenas) creates a landscape of distinctive pits or depressions in the sediment. Despite their visibility and widespread occurrence in Atlantic Canada and elsewhere, the community influence and persistence of this disturbance remain undocumented. This study addressed this gap in our knowledge using two approaches. First, in both sandy and muddy habitats, we monitored fresh feeding pits (disturbed sediments) for up to 9–11 days after their formation, recording their sediment properties and diversity and density of invertebrate fauna, and comparing these characteristics to those of ambient (undisturbed) sediments in similar habitat. Second, we quantified local-scale invertebrate diversity and density in feeding pits and ambient sediments in muddy habitat only, at three other sites within a Marine Protected Area (MPA). Grain size did not differ between disturbed and ambient sediments and did not change over time within habitats. We also found no significant differences in invertebrate diversity and density between disturbed and undisturbed sandy sediments. In contrast, the invertebrate fauna differed significantly between disturbed and ambient muddy sediments, particularly during the first 4 days after disturbance. Feeding pits in muddy sediments also took twice longer to fill up than pits in sandy sediments. These results were consistent with the comparison of disturbed and undisturbed muddy sediments in the MPA: at least at the local scale, the foraging by this invader significantly altered community structure. Ambient sediments had a higher number of species and nearly twice as many invertebrates compared to disturbed sediments. Overall, our results suggest that visual evidence of green crab feeding pits in muddy sediments can be used as a fairly reliable predictor of local-scale changes in invertebrate communities. The persistence of these local-scale changes depends on the type of habitat in which the disturbance takes place.

Marine reserves lag behind wilderness in the conservation of key functional roles

D’agata S, Mouillot D, Wantiez L, Friedlander AM, Kulbicki M, Vigliola L. Marine reserves lag behind wilderness in the conservation of key functional roles. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2016 ;7:12000. Available from: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160629/ncomms12000/full/ncomms12000.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Although marine reserves represent one of the most effective management responses to human impacts, their capacity to sustain the same diversity of species, functional roles and biomass of reef fishes as wilderness areas remains questionable, in particular in regions with deep and long-lasting human footprints. Here we show that fish functional diversity and biomass of top predators are significantly higher on coral reefs located at more than 20 h travel time from the main market compared with even the oldest (38 years old), largest (17,500 ha) and most restrictive (no entry) marine reserve in New Caledonia (South-Western Pacific). We further demonstrate that wilderness areas support unique ecological values with no equivalency as one gets closer to humans, even in large and well-managed marine reserves. Wilderness areas may therefore serve as benchmarks for management effectiveness and act as the last refuges for the most vulnerable functional roles.

Describing the Ocean Economies of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

Clements J, Feliciano V, Almodóvar-Caraballo BI, Colgan C. Describing the Ocean Economies of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. Charleston, SC: NOAA Office of Coastal Management; 2016. Available from: https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/training/econ-usvi-pr.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Report

Given their unique settings, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are more reliant on ocean-related activity than most continental U.S. states. However, these territories have a relatively high number of small, independently operated, informal businesses that are not reflected in employment statistics. To provide a better understanding of the true ocean-dependency of the economies of the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, this report examines local data and knowledge that are not reflected in the federal data sources used to produce Economics: National Ocean Watch statistics for the U.S. ocean economy. Federal and local data sources were analyzed in the report to provide insights on estimating the small islands’ ocean economies.

The use of marine wildlife-watching codes and their role in managing activities within marine protected areas in Scotland

Inman A, Brooker E, Dolman S, McCann R, A. Wilson MW. The use of marine wildlife-watching codes and their role in managing activities within marine protected areas in Scotland. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2016 ;132:132 - 142. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569116301582
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine wildlife-watching is a developing industry in Scotland contributing to overall growth and aspirations of the marine tourism sector. Despite European-level legal protection of cetaceans, and Scottish legislation for the protection of seals at designated haul-out sites, there are currently no formal or mandatory regulations to specifically manage tourism activities in relation to marine wildlife. However, most Scottish wildlife-watching operators adopt one, or more, of the five key voluntary codes of conduct which have been developed in the UK since 2003. In this paper, we review the consistency of policy messages and recommendations across voluntary codes of conduct for the UK and Scotland, taking into consideration global use and effectiveness in the use of similar codes. In this context, we specifically examine the potential impacts of wildlife watching and management of future activities, both within and outwith marine protected areas (MPAs) in Scotland. For this, the research also incorporates data from field surveys, in-situ observations and operator questionnaires conducted in Scotland relating to the implementation of the codes in practice. Key findings highlighting inconsistences in some of the key recommendations across the five UK codes in particular, the distance and speed when approaching an animal. However, all of the codes also have some similarities, including advising against deliberate human interaction, e.g. swimming with marine megafauna, including a separate code on basking sharks, published by the Shark Trust in the UK. In light of the growing network of wildlife-focused MPAs in Scotland (in particular the Sea of Hebrides proposed MPA for mobile species), and national aspirations for the growth of the marine tourism sector, we consider the potential implications of unregulated wildlife watching and the conservation objectives of protected areas for marine mammals and basking sharks. We also provide recommendations on how more formal wildlife-watching regulations could enhance MPA effectiveness and contribute to the emerging processes for Regional Marine Plans across Scotland and provide some insights for global marine wildlife tourism.

Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

Díaz-Pérez L, Rodríguez-Zaragoza FAlejandro, Ortiz M, Cupul-Magaña ALeví, Carriquiry JD, Ríos-Jara E, Rodríguez-Troncoso APaola, García-Rivas Mdel Carmen. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2016 ;11(8):e0161812. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161812
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

Managing MIDAS. Harmonising the management of Multi-Internationally Designated Areas: Ramsar Sites, World Heritage sites, Biosphere Reserves and UNESCO Global Geoparks

Schaaf T, Rodrigues DClamote. Managing MIDAS. Harmonising the management of Multi-Internationally Designated Areas: Ramsar Sites, World Heritage sites, Biosphere Reserves and UNESCO Global Geoparks. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; 2016 p. 140 pp. Available from: https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/46176
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

An Internationally Designated Area (IDA) is a natural area internationally recognised by a global or regional designation mechanism. Among these, there are 263 areas where different IDAs fully or partially overlap thus carrying double, triple or even quadruple international designations. These areas are named Multi-Internationally Designated Areas (MIDAs) for the purpose of this publication. Following up on Resolution WCC-2012-Res-052 adopted at the IUCN World Conservation Congress (Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, September 2012), this Guidance addresses specific issues related to the management of MIDAs, and includes recommendations for harmonising the management, systematic conservation and sustainable use of these areas aimed at the local, national and international stakeholders of MIDAs.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2016-09-14