2016-11-16

Community perspectives of governance for effective management of marine protected areas in Malaysia

Islam GMd Nurul, Tai SYew, Kusairi MNoh, Ahmad S, Aswani FMohd Noh, Senan MKhair Afha, Ahmad A. Community perspectives of governance for effective management of marine protected areas in Malaysia. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;135:34 - 42. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456911630271X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are useful tool for conserving biodiversity and managing fisheries. The government of Malaysia has established several Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to enable overexploited marine resources to recover and to conserve coral reef ecosystems.

The paper investigates the effect of governance approach on the effective management of two MPAs, Perhentian and Kapas marine parks in Terengganu State of Peninsular Malaysia. The data for this study was obtained from face-to-face interviews with local people from two MPAs using a structured questionnaire. The results of the analysis show that local participation in MPA management and fisheries regulations are significant factors for the effective MPA management in the study areas. The regression results show that users' participation has contributed significantly to the MPA governance, which indicate that local peoples' participation play an important role for effective management of MPAs in Malaysia. The MPA management activities should be coordinated with other relevant agencies and local users to achieve successful management of MPAs in Malaysia. There is a need to give priority to encourage local fishers' participation in decision making for MPAs management in the future marine resource conservation policy in Malaysia.

Analysis of the optimal deployment location for tidal energy converters in the mesotidal Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

Mestres M, Griñó M, Sierra JPau, Mösso C. Analysis of the optimal deployment location for tidal energy converters in the mesotidal Ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Energy [Internet]. 2016 ;115:1179 - 1187. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544216308295
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The potential power output expected from the installation of a tidal farm near the mesotidal Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) is assessed using two different tidal stream energy converters (TEC). For this, the results of a previous resource assessment based on a 28-day long hydrodynamic simulation are used. From this data we identify the areas susceptible of hosting the farms, select the optimal location for them, and assess the total available and extractable energy for each turbine type. Finally, using a simple farm design based on standard inter-turbine separation, we estimate the expected power supplied by the farm. Irrespective of the site, the total available tidal power in the areas susceptible of hosting the farms is around 150 MW; at the optimal location, the hourly extractable power is about 22.5 MW, of which only between 10% and 15% can be harnessed by the designed farms, powering between 4411 and 6638 homes. A local analysis of the most energetic subregions within these sites increases this ratio up to 30%. Nevertheless, the power output is sufficient to fulfil the needs of between 1660 and 2213 households, depending on the chosen site and the selected TEC.

Education and notification approaches for harmful algal blooms (HABs), Washington State, USA

F. Hardy J, Bouchard D, Burghdoff M, Hanowell R, LeDoux B, Preece E, Tuttle L, Williams G. Education and notification approaches for harmful algal blooms (HABs), Washington State, USA. Harmful Algae [Internet]. 2016 ;60:70 - 80. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988316302761
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

While numerous strategies have been used to educate and notify the public about potential hazards from exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), at present there are no national guidelines or suggested outreach approaches. To raise public awareness and determine effective HAB outreach methods, two Washington State agencies and three counties in the Puget Sound region implemented several education and notification strategies. These approaches were rated for effectiveness by state and county public health and water quality professionals. At the state level, the most effective action was a three-tiered advisory posting protocol for notifying external users that was introduced to local health jurisdictions at workshops around the state. Supplemental permanent signage is recommended for lakes with blooms to overcome the time lag between HAB onset and testing/posting. The state also implements effective notification of toxicity test results through a web-based HAB database and listserv. Lake residents were best notified through electronic alerts including email and social media while mailers to lake residents were useful during initial HAB events and to gain subscribers to electronic alerts. Press releases were most valuable when used sparingly for severe blooms or for blooms in large lakes. Initial analyses of lake recreational use indicates these strategies encourage behavior change in lake users. Based on these findings, a general framework for HAB outreach and a specific notification strategy is proposed to assist other regions or agencies that are developing HAB education and notification programs.

Towards mapping and assessing antarctic marine ecosystem services – The weddell sea case study

Deininger M, Koellner T, Brey T, Teschke K. Towards mapping and assessing antarctic marine ecosystem services – The weddell sea case study. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2016 ;22:174 - 192. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041616304557
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study is the first to quantify and to map the provision of ecosystem core services (ES) – tourism, genetic diversity and carbon sequestration – for a large Antarctic marine area, the Weddell Sea. Additionally, synergies and trade-offs between the ES were explored. The analyses conducted during this study covered both spatial and temporal correlations between pairs of ES, and between individual ES and sea ice coverage. Overall, service delivery in the studied seascape is distinctly heterogeneous, albeit there are areas where multiple benefits are provided simultaneously (“super hotspots”). Our findings indicate that in wide parts of the Weddell Sea, small-scale conservation efforts may not achieve their intended goals. They also show that particularly sea ice cover restrains tourism, i.e. this sector may expect strong growth in a future of global warming driven sea ice retreat.

The ‘ghost of past fishing’: Small-scale fisheries and conservation of threatened groupers in subtropical islands

Silvano RAM, Nora V, Andreoli TB, Lopes PFM, Begossi A. The ‘ghost of past fishing’: Small-scale fisheries and conservation of threatened groupers in subtropical islands. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;75:125 - 132. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16306261
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Groupers are highly targeted and vulnerable reef fishes. The effects of fishing pressure on the density of three reef fishes were investigated in 21 islands outside (n=15) and inside (n=6) a Marine Protected Area (MPA) at the Paraty Bay, Brazilian southeastern coast. Two valued groupers (Epinephelus marginatus and Mycteroperca acutirostris) and a non-target grunt (Haemulon aurolineatum) were studied. The total biomass of fish caught in each island was considered as a measure of current fishing pressure, while the island distance from the villages was considered as a measure of past fishing pressure. Fish densities were recordedin number and biomass. The biomass of M. acutirostris was inversely related to current fishing pressure, which did not affect the other two fishes. The density of E. marginatus increased with the island distance from one of the fishing villages, which indicated that past fishing may have had decreased the abundance of E. marginatus. Densities of the three fishes and fishing pressure did not differ between islands inside and outside the MPA. Data on fishing pressure, densities of groupers and coral cover were combined here to assign conservation scores to islands. A redefinition of MPA boundaries to reconcile fish conservation, fishing activities and fishers’ food security was proposed.

The bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) industry collapse in Virginia and its implications for the successful management of scallop-seagrass habitats

Oreska MPJ, Truitt B, Orth RJ, Luckenbach MW. The bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) industry collapse in Virginia and its implications for the successful management of scallop-seagrass habitats. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;75:116 - 124. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16303529
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Virginia supported the most productive bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) fishery in the United States in 1930, but the fishery disappeared three years later and never recovered. This collapse highlights a tipping point, but managers of extant bay scallop fisheries have not looked to this case for guidance, because the collapse has long been attributed to an exogenous eelgrass (Zostera marina) ‘wasting disease’ pandemic. Consequently, it remains little understood. However, efforts to restore the fishery, following successful eelgrass restoration, now warrant a thorough examination of its economic significance and disappearance. This study comprehensively surveyed information on the original fishery and reconstructed the pre-collapse population to evaluate restoration prospects and management strategies that reduce the risk of future scallop-seagrass system collapses. Harvest records suggest that overharvesting possibly contributed to the Virginia fishery disappearance—a factor that influenced other bay scallop fisheries but did not alarm contemporary managers in Virginia. The harvest peaked before managers observed eelgrass disappearing and exceeded most pre-collapse population estimates. Intensive dredging possibly precipitated a feedback that reduced scallop recruitment by lowering seagrass shoot densities. Managers should, therefore, consider a potential tradeoff between future scallop harvest and eelgrass restoration goals. The restored wild scallop population in Virginia cannot yet support a commercial fishery at historic levels, which removed between 270 and 380x as many individuals. However, the economic risks associated with reestablishing this fishery are low. The collapse did not cause a significant loss in total economic value, because harvesters rapidly shifted focus to clams, supplanting lost scallop revenue.

Communicating research on the economic valuation of coastal and marine ecosystem services

Torres C, Hanley N. Communicating research on the economic valuation of coastal and marine ecosystem services. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;75:99 - 107. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16304912
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Quantifying the monetary value of ecosystem services (ES) provided by coastal and marine resources can help policy makers assess the trade-offs and synergies inherent in ecosystem-based management of marine and coastal environments, thus increasing the social efficiency of decision-making processes. As shown by the valuation literature, the number of coastal and marine management settings where valuation researchers have attempted to make a contribution is rising fast. However, this rise in research activity has not been matched by the increase in the use of economic valuation (EV) in the actual management of coastal and marine resources. This raises an interesting question: is EV responding to the needs of policy makers? This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the knowledge base regarding the economic values for coastal and marine ecosystems. It then discusses how to improve the uptake of ES valuation research by focussing on two core issues which are thought to be essential for more effective communication with the policy community.

The impact of climate change on the levelised cost of wind energy

Hdidouan D, Staffell I. The impact of climate change on the levelised cost of wind energy. Renewable Energy [Internet]. 2017 ;101:575 - 592. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116307856
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Society's dependence on weather systems has broadened to include electricity generation from wind turbines. Climate change is altering energy flows in the atmosphere, which will affect the economic potential of wind power. Changes to wind resources and their upstream impacts on the energy industry have received limited academic attention, despite their risks earning interest from investors.

We propose a framework for assessing the impact of climate change on the cost of wind energy, going from the change in hourly wind speed distributions from radiative forcing through to energy output and levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from wind farms. The paper outlines the proof of concept for this framework, exploring the limitations of global climate models for assessing wind resources, and a novel Weibull transfer function to characterise the climate signal.

The framework is demonstrated by considering the UK's wind resources to 2100. Results are mixed: capacity factors increase in some regions and decrease in others, while the year-to-year variation generally increases. This highlights important financial and risk impacts which can be adopted into policy to enhance energy system resilience to the impacts of climate change. We call for greater emphasis to be placed on modelling wind resources in climate science.

Evaluation of the wave energy resources in the Cape Verde Islands

Bernardino M, Rusu L, C. Soares G. Evaluation of the wave energy resources in the Cape Verde Islands. Renewable Energy [Internet]. 2017 ;101:316 - 326. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116307418
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Cape Verde Islands form an archipelago off the African coast in the Atlantic Ocean. Since it is highly dependent on fossil fuels, Cape Verde decision makers have started to take into account also the potential of renewable energies, especially wind and solar. In particular, wind power has already 26 MW installed. From this perspective, the present work aims to be a first step in the evaluation of a different source of renewable energy, the wave energy. Using reanalysis data from ECMWF, the SWAN model was run for a 10-year period, covering the time interval 2004–2013, using a methodology already implemented in other island environments. Moreover, three years of this high resolution data are compared with the available altimetry data. In this way, a dataset of the sea state conditions around Cape Verde Islands was produced. This dataset is further used for wave climate analyses and wave energy resource assessments. This study indicates that the coastal environment of the Cape Verde Islands, and especially some particular areas, present considerable wave energy resources that should be taken in consideration for extraction in the near future.

Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea

Ruiz-Orejón LF, Sardà R, Ramis-Pujol J. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. 2016 ;120:136 - 144. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113616301325
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Journal Article

In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847–1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km−2(maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km−2) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km−2 (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km−2). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (<5 mm) in all the samples. The most abundant particles had a surface area of approximately 1 mm2 (the mesh size was 333 μm). The general estimate obtained was a total value of 1455 tons dw of floating plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas.

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