2017-03-01

The Global View of Transshipment: Preliminary Findings

Anon. The Global View of Transshipment: Preliminary Findings. Global Fishing Watch; 2017. Available from: http://globalfishingwatch.org/data
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Transshipment at sea, the offloading of catch from a fishing vessel to a refrigerated cargo vessel far from port, obscures the actual source of the catch and is a significant pathway for illegally caught fish to enter the legitimate seafood market. Occurring out of sight and over the horizon, the practice enables other nefarious activity, ranging from smuggling to human trafficking. Increasing the transparency of transshipment could improve fisheries management and reduce human rights abuses.

To address this gap in transparency, SkyTruth and Global Fishing Watch analyzed over 21 billion positional Automatic Information System (AIS) messages from ocean-going vessels between 2012 and 2016, and we identified and tracked an estimated 90 percent of the world’s refrigerated cargo ships (reefers). We mapped 86,490 instances in which these reefers exhibited rendezvous behaviors at sea for long enough to receive a transshipment, events that we call “potential transshipments,” and 5,065 instances where we see a fishing vessel rendezvousing with the reefer, events we call “likely transshipments.” We considered only events that occurred at sea, ignoring transshipments at port, which are generally less of a management challenge. 

Acoustically monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales

Bayless AR, Oleson EM, Baumann-Pickering S, Simonis AE, Marchetti J, Martin S, Wiggins SM. Acoustically monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2017 ;190:122 - 131. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783617300346
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) feed primarily on several species of large pelagic fish, species that are also targeted by the Hawai‘i-permitted commercial deep-set longline fishery. False killer whales have been known to approach fishing lines in an attempt to procure bait or catch from the lines, a behavior known as depredation. This behavior can lead to the hooking or entanglement of an animal, which currently exceeds sustainable levels for pelagic false killer whales in Hawai‘i. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was used to record false killer whales near longline fishing gear to investigate the timing, rate, and spatial extent of false killer whale occurrence. Acoustic data were collected using small autonomous recorders modified for deployment on the mainline of longline fishing gear. A total of 90 fishing sets were acoustically monitored in 2013 and 2014 on a chartered longline vessel using up to five acoustic recorders deployed throughout the fishing gear. Of the 102 odontocete click and/or whistle bouts detected on 55 sets, 26 bouts detected on 19 different fishing sets were classified as false killer whales with high or medium confidence based on either whistle classification, click classification, or both. The timing of false killer whale acoustic presence near the gear was related to the timing of fishing activities, with 57% of the false killer whale bouts occurring while gear was being hauled, with 50% of those bouts occurring during the first third of the haul. During three fishing sets, false killer whales were detected on more than one recorder, and in all cases the whales were recorded on instruments farther from the fishing vessel as the haul proceeded. Only three of the 19 sets with acoustically-confirmed false killer whale presence showed signs of bait or catch damage by marine mammals, which may relate to the difficulty of reporting depredation. PAM has proven to be a relatively inexpensive and efficient method for monitoring the Hawai‘i longline fishery for interactions with false killer whales.

Development of a model to simulate groundwater inundation induced by sea-level rise and high tides in Honolulu, Hawaii

Habel S, Fletcher CH, Rotzoll K, El-Kadi AI. Development of a model to simulate groundwater inundation induced by sea-level rise and high tides in Honolulu, Hawaii. Water Research [Internet]. 2017 ;114:122 - 134. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135417301276
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Many of the world's largest cities face risk of sea-level rise (SLR) induced flooding owing to their limited elevations and proximities to the coastline. Within this century, global mean sea level is expected to reach magnitudes that will exceed the ground elevation of some built infrastructure. The concurrent rise of coastal groundwater will produce additional sources of inundation resulting from narrowing and loss of the vertical unsaturated subsurface space. This has implications for the dense network of buried and low-lying infrastructure that exists across urban coastal zones.

Here, we describe a modeling approach that simulates narrowing of the unsaturated space and groundwater inundation (GWI) generated by SLR-induced lifting of coastal groundwater. The methodology combines terrain modeling, groundwater monitoring, estimation of tidal influence, and numerical groundwater-flow modeling to simulate future flood scenarios considering user-specified tide stages and magnitudes of SLR.

We illustrate the value of the methodology by applying it to the heavily urbanized and low-lying Waikiki area of Honolulu, Hawaii. Results indicate that SLR of nearly 1 m generates GWI across 23% of the 13 km2 study area, threatening $5 billion of taxable real estate and 48 km of roadway. Analysis of current conditions reveals that 86% of 259 active cesspool sites in the study area are likely inundated. This suggests that cesspool effluent is currently entering coastal groundwater, which not only leads to degradation of coastal environments, but also presents a future threat to public health as GWI would introduce effluent at the ground surface.

Introducing ocean energy industries to a busy marine environment

Hammar L, Gullström M, Dahlgren TG, Asplund ME, Goncalves IBraga, Molander S. Introducing ocean energy industries to a busy marine environment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Internet]. 2017 ;74:178 - 185. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117301090
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $37.95
Type: Journal Article

The immense energy potential of the oceans is being increasingly recognized the world over, at the same time the integrity of marine ecosystems is challenged by pressure from multiple human activities. For good reasons environmental licensing procedures are precautionary and new industries must declare their detrimental impacts and provide mitigation measures. New ocean energy industries target renewable energy sources thus, on a grand scale, partly mitigating climate change. However, on-site environmental impacts are yet to be established. In this review we compare ocean energy industries with a wide range of conventional, better understood, human activities and outline environmental risks and research priorities. Results show that ocean energy systems are thought to incur many pressures, some familiar and others with yet unknown effects. Particular uncertainties regard ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and large fast-moving turbines. Ocean energy industries should not be considered in isolation because the significance of environmental impacts depend on the full spectra of human activities in each area. Marine spatial planning provides a platform for holistic assessments and may facilitate the establishment of ocean energy industries, as long as risk-related uncertainties are reduced.

Spatial-temporal changes of coastal and marine disasters risks and impacts in Mainland China

Fang J, Liu W, Yang S, Brown S, Nicholls RJ, Hinkel J, Shi X, Shi P. Spatial-temporal changes of coastal and marine disasters risks and impacts in Mainland China. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;139:125 - 140. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117301084
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

China is amongst the countries most severely affected by coastal and marine disasters. In this study, the annual variation and geographic distribution of the direct economic losses and fatalities caused by rapid-onset coastal and marine disasters in China have been analysed. This was based on a collection of historical documents and official records. The five main hazards include storm surges, rough seas, sea ice, red tides and green tides. The results show that: (1) Storm surges caused the most economic losses (92% of the total); (2) At national scale, direct economic losses induced by coastal and marine disasters fluctuated with no clear trend; the number of fatalities per year declined, and in relative terms both economic losses and fatalities decreased dramatically throughout time; (3) Substantial heterogeneity exists across the 11 provincial-level administrative regions in terms of the spatial pattern and temporal trends of coastal and marine hazards, exposure, vulnerability and observed impacts. Guangzhou, Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan provinces experienced the highest direct economic losses and fatalities due to repeated typhoon-induced storm surges. The decline in adverse impacts caused by hazards is due to substantial progress in coastal and marine disaster prevention and migration in China, largely thanks to institutional measures, plus adaptation and mitigation actions at both national and regional levels. Coastal China still faces growing risks due to socio-economic development, climate change, as well as subsidence and new emerging marine disasters (e.g. green tides). Further management needs to promote integrated solutions across socio-economic development, disaster risk reduction and environmental conservation in coastal regions. This should happen at national and international levels as disasters can affect neighboring countries, and their marine environments and socio-ecological systems. Lessons may be learnt from countries experiencing similar problems over the long-term.

Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range

Di-Méglio N, Campana I. Floating macro-litter along the Mediterranean French coast: Composition, density, distribution and overlap with cetacean range. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17301418
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This study investigated the composition, density and distribution of floating macro-litter along the Liguro-Provençal basin with respect to cetaceans presence. Survey transects were performed in summer between 2006 and 2015 from sailing vessels with simultaneous cetaceans observations. During 5171 km travelled, 1993 floating items were recorded, widespread in the whole study area. Plastics was the predominant category, with bags/packaging always representing > 45% of total items. Overall mean density (14.98 items/km2) was stable with significant increase reported only in 2010–2011; monthly analysis showed lower litter densities in July–September, suggesting possible seasonal patterns. Kernel density estimation for plastics revealed ubiquitous distribution rather than high accumulation areas, mainly due to the circulation dynamics of this area. The presence range of cetaceans (259 sightings, 6 species) corresponded by ~ 50% with plastic distribution, indicating high potential of interaction, especially in the eastern part of the area, but effective risks for marine species might be underrepresented.

Philopatry and Regional Connectivity of the Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran in the U.S. and Bahamas

Guttridge TL, Bergmann MPMVan, Bolte C, Howey LA, Finger JS, Kessel ST, Brooks JL, Winram W, Bond ME, Jordan LKB, et al. Philopatry and Regional Connectivity of the Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran in the U.S. and Bahamas. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00003/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A thorough understanding of movement patterns of a species is critical for designing effective conservation and management initiatives. However, generating such information for large marine vertebrates is challenging, as they typically move over long distances, live in concealing environments, are logistically difficult to capture and, as upper-trophic predators, are naturally low in abundance. Large-bodied, broadly distributed tropical shark typically restricted to coastal and shelf habitats, the great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran epitomizes such challenges. Highly valued for its fins (in target and incidental fisheries), it suffers high bycatch mortality coupled with fecundity conservative life history, and as a result, is vulnerable to over-exploitation and population depletion. Although there are very little species-specific data available, the absence of recent catch records give cause to suspect substantial declines across its range. Here, we used biotelemetry techniques (acoustic and satellite), conventional tagging, laser-photogrammetry, and photo-identification to investigate the level of site fidelity/residency for great hammerheads to coastal areas in the Bahamas and U.S., and the extent of movements and connectivity of great hammerheads between the U.S. and Bahamas. Results revealed large-scale return migrations (3030 km), seasonal residency to local areas (some for 5 months), site fidelity (annual return to Bimini and Jupiter for many individuals) and numerous international movements. These findings enhance the understanding of movement ecology in great hammerhead sharks and have potential to contribute to improved conservation and management.

Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition

Day A, Bodtker K. Ocean Watch Howe Sound Edition. Coastal Ocean Research Institute; 2017. Available from: http://oceanwatch.ca/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Type: Report

Howe Sound is a remarkable blend of wilderness and accessibility. It sits directly adjacent to the growing metropolis of Vancouver, yet also contains fantastic wild places and natural recreational opportunities. With the population and development growing quickly, many are wondering how it can maintain its ecological values and way of life.

intro_map 11Nov-edited

Figure 1. The Howe Sound

This report provides information to help guide decisions as the area grows and changes. Working with scientists and other collaborators, we have produced a series of articles on key elements of Howe Sound (Figure 1).

These are grouped under seven themes, listed above in the navigation bar.  For each article subject, we produced a summary assessment rating, using four colours. While the assessment rating gives a quick snapshot, you can find out the whole story by going to the articles themselves. They are summarized on this site, and available as pdf downloads. Each article has information on why the subject is important, what is happening, and what people can do. 

Thank you for your interest in Howe Sound — it is a beautiful part of the world. We hope you find our information useful and inspiring. This is our first report and we look forward to your questions and suggestions on content and presentation. Our aim is to produce independent, credible, and well-presented information so that you are inspired to make better decisions for nature and people in Howe Sound.

Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño

Barnard PL, Hoover D, Hubbard DM, Snyder A, Ludka BC, Allan J, Kaminsky GM, Ruggiero P, Gallien TW, Gabel L, et al. Extreme oceanographic forcing and coastal response due to the 2015–2016 El Niño. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2017 ;8:14365. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14365
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of interannual climate variability across the Pacific Ocean basin, with influence on the global climate. The two end members of the cycle, El Niño and La Niña, force anomalous oceanographic conditions and coastal response along the Pacific margin, exposing many heavily populated regions to increased coastal flooding and erosion hazards. However, a quantitative record of coastal impacts is spatially limited and temporally restricted to only the most recent events. Here we report on the oceanographic forcing and coastal response of the 2015–2016 El Niño, one of the strongest of the last 145 years. We show that winter wave energy equalled or exceeded measured historical maxima across the US West Coast, corresponding to anomalously large beach erosion across the region. Shorelines in many areas retreated beyond previously measured landward extremes, particularly along the sediment-starved California coast.

Does full protection count for the maintenance of β-diversity patterns in marine communities? Evidence from Mediterranean fish assemblages

Appolloni L, Bevilacqua S, Sbrescia L, Sandulli R, Terlizzi A, Russo GFulvio. Does full protection count for the maintenance of β-diversity patterns in marine communities? Evidence from Mediterranean fish assemblages. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/aqc.2750/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

1. Although it is widely recognized that protection may enhance size, abundance, and diversity of fish, its effect on spatial heterogeneity of fish assemblages and species turnover is still poorly understood.

2. Here the effect of full protection within a Mediterranean marine protected area on β‐diversity patterns of fish assemblages along a depth gradient comparing a no‐take zone with multiple unprotected areas is explored. The no‐take zone showed significantly higher synecological parameters, higher β‐diversity among depths, and lower small‐scale heterogeneity of fish assemblages relative to unprotected areas.

3. Such patterns might likely depend on the high level of fishing pressure outside the no‐take zone, as also abundance‐biomass curves seemed to indicate. Results suggested that full protection could play a role in maintaining high β‐diversity, thus reducing the fragility of marine communities and ecosystems, and spatial heterogeneity may represent a reliable predictor of how management actions could provide insurance against undesirable phase shifts.

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