2017-04-05

Navigating the seascape of ocean management: waypoints on the voyage toward sustainable use

Katona S, Polsenberg J, Lowndes JS, Halpern BS, Pacheco E, Mosher L, Kilponen A, Papacostas K, Guzmán-Mora AGloria, Farmer G, et al. Navigating the seascape of ocean management: waypoints on the voyage toward sustainable use. Seattle, WA: OpenChannels: Forum for Ocean Planning and Management; 2017 p. 44 pp.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Some societies have sustainably managed their local marine resources for centuries using traditional methods, but we are only beginning to learn how to do it at larger scales, including globally. A broad, deep and constantly growing body of ocean knowledge has developed, adding many new concepts, perspectives, management models and analytical tools into the knowledge base in a relatively short period. Such rapid growth has created a potentially confusing mash-up of ideas, acronyms, techniques, tools and regulations, demonstrated by recent titles such as, ‘Marine planning: tragedy of the acronyms’ (Ardron 2010), ‘Integrated marine science and management: wading through the morass’ (Elliott 2014), ‘Beyond rhetoric: navigating the conceptual tangle towards effective implementation of the ecosystem approach to oceans management ‘ (Engler 2015) and ‘Marine legislation – the ultimate ‘horrendogram’’ (Boyes and Elliott 2014, undated and 2016).

The purpose of this paper is to assist policy makers, marine managers and those considering careers in this area by providing a short history of ocean management, its conceptual foundation, frameworks for modern management and examples of its application at different scales. Extensive literature exists to supplement the summarized information we present.

We highlight the following terms as navigational markers through the ‘seascape’1 of marine management rhetoric: sustainability, ecosystem approach, ecosystem-based management, natural capital, ecosystem services, integrated ecosystem assessment, the causal framework DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and its variants, indicators and reference points, marine area planning, marine spatial management (including decision support tools), adaptive ocean management and dynamic ocean management. We also point out the important roles of marine initiatives such as Blue Economy, the Ocean Health Index, Large Marine Ecosystems, Seascapes, Protected Areas and others. Understanding the similarities, differences, relationships and synergies among these activities increases the likelihood of achieving successful management processes or solutions.

Further knowledge and additional methods are still needed to safeguard the human-ocean system and the benefits it provides to people particularly with continued global population growth, but better awareness of what we already know will speed collective progress toward healthier oceans and coastlines. Working toward that goal can also be a uniting force in an increasingly divisive world, because it must necessarily breach political, geographic, economic and other differences. 

Expanding our understanding of the trade in marine aquarium animals

Rhyne AL, Tlusty MF, Szczebak JT, Holmberg RJ. Expanding our understanding of the trade in marine aquarium animals. PeerJ [Internet]. 2017 ;5:e2949. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/2949/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The trade of live marine animals for home and public aquaria has grown into a major global industry. Millions of marine fishes and invertebrates are removed from coral reefs and associated habitats each year. The majority are imported into the United States, with the remainder sent to Europe, Japan, and a handful of other countries. Despite the recent growth and diversification of the aquarium trade, to date, data collection is not mandatory, and hence comprehensive information on species volume and diversity is lacking. This lack of information makes it impossible to study trade pathways. Without species-specific volume and diversity data, it is unclear how importing and exporting governments can oversee this industry effectively or how sustainability should be encouraged. To expand our knowledge and understanding of the trade, and to effectively communicate this new understanding, we introduce the publically-available Marine Aquarium Biodiversity and Trade Flow online database (https://www.aquariumtradedata.org/). This tool was created to communicate the volume and diversity of marine fishes and/or invertebrates imported into the US over three complete years (2008, 2009, and 2011) and three partial years (2000, 2004, 2005). To create this tool, invoices pertaining to shipments of live marine fishes and invertebrates were scanned and analyzed for species name, species quantities, country of origin, port of entry, and city of import destination. Here we focus on the analysis of the later three years of data and also produce an estimate for the entirety of 2000, 2004, and 2005. The three-year aggregate totals (2008, 2009, 2011) indicate that just under 2,300 fish and 725 invertebrate species were imported into the US cumulatively, although just under 1,800 fish and 550 invertebrate species were traded annually. Overall, the total number of live marine animals decreased between 2008 and 2011. In 2008, 2009, and 2011, the total number of individual fish (8.2, 7.3, and 6.9 million individuals) and invertebrates (4.2, 3.7, and 3.6 million individuals) assessed by analyzing the invoice data are roughly 60% of the total volumes recorded through the Law Enforcement Management Information System (LEMIS) dataset. Using these complete years, we back-calculated the number of individuals of both fishes and invertebrates imported in 2000, 2004, and 2005. These estimates (9.3, 10.8, and 11.2 million individual fish per year) were consistent with the three years of complete data. We also use these data to understand the global trade in two species (Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, and orange clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris / percula) recently considered for Endangered Species Act listing. Aquariumtradedata.org can help create more effective management plans for the traded species, and ideally could be implemented at key trade ports to better assess the global trade of aquatic wildlife.

Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the polar regions: knowledge gaps & gluts through evidence mapping

Mangano MCristina, Sarà G, Corsolini S. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the polar regions: knowledge gaps & gluts through evidence mapping. Chemosphere [Internet]. 2017 ;172:37 - 45. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516318677
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread compounds that accumulating in polar regions canalise through trophic webs. Although several dozens of studies have been carried out in the last decades, the information is generally scattered across a large number of literature sources. This does not allow an efficient synthesis and constraints our understanding on how address future monitoring plans and environmental conservation strategies on the Polar Regions with respect to POPs. Thus, here, we present the outcome of a systematic map (SM) to scope, screen and chart evidences from literature dealing with POPs in Polar regions. The SMs strive to produce rigorous guidelines and have recently been proposed as useful and effective tools to summarise growing bodies of research that seek to reduce bias and increase reliability, particularly in the case of high priority and controversial topics. Our SM was based on 125 polar studies, focussing on the most studied target species among those listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List (IUCN Red List). To facilitate analysis of evidence, the studies were classified into Accumulation Monitoring (accounting for POP monitoring through sub-organismal, functional and population levels) and Food Web Monitoring approaches (accounting for contaminants monitoring through food webs). Our SM allowed us to assess and visualise, a set of both knowledge gaps and gluts and lastly a list was provided to address future research on POPs in Polar Regions.

Feasibility Study for Onboard Marine Debris Gathering and Recycling

Kang HJin, Chun T-B, Ahn H, Yim G-T. Feasibility Study for Onboard Marine Debris Gathering and Recycling. Marine Technology Society Journal [Internet]. 2017 ;51(1):32 - 39. Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/mts/mtsj/2017/00000051/00000001/art00005
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $28.00
Type: Journal Article

It is well known that approximately 90% of all marine debris consists of reusable plastics. Small plastic particles are easily swallowed and disturb marine ecosystems. However, cleaning up marine debris is difficult because of its economic feasibility. Though there are many proven land-based recycling processes available, the high costs of gathering marine debris and transporting it adds to marine debris-related problems. Marine debris cleanup is challenging despite various studies that point to its importance. Therefore, we discuss a recycling chain that concerns gathering, transporting, classifying, recycling, and disposing of marine debris on the ocean. In this study, cost-effective ways of cleaning up large-scale marine litter such as garbage patches are studied. As plastics generate toxic materials during recycling and disposing, this study focuses on how to apply technological potential and meets the required rules and regulations for establishing an economically and environmentally friendly recycling chain for marine debris. In this study, a new type of marine platform is also studied and suggested for a low-energy consumption process and to recycle this debris into oil, gas, and raw materials.

Effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on protected marine species

Wallace BP, Brosnan T, McLamb D, Rowles T, Ruder E, Schroeder B, Schwacke L, Stacy B, Sullivan L, Takeshita R, et al. Effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on protected marine species. Endangered Species Research [Internet]. 2017 ;33:1 - 7. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v33/p1-7/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident was the largest offshore oil spill in the history of the United States, contaminating surface waters, the water column, deep-sea corals and benthos, nearshore and coastal ecosystems, and natural resources across 5 states and an ocean area of more than 112000 km2 in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Protected marine species—sea turtles and marine mammals, in particular—were a main focus of the DWH Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). The DWH spill overlapped in time and space with sea turtle and marine mammal habitats and life stages throughout the northern GoM. Thus, the DWH NRDA Trustees (2016; www.gulfspillrestoration.noaa.gov/restoration-planning/gulf-plan/) performed several activities to assess adverse effects of oil exposure on sea turtles and marine mammals to quantify the full extent and nature of the impacts to these taxa across the region. A synopsis of the Trustees’ assessment activities and conclusions is presented in the DWH NRDA Programmatic Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan (DWH NRDA Trustees 2016). This Theme Section presents several of these specific sea turtle and marine mammal assessment activities and associated findings. This Overview provides a context for the Theme Section papers, introduces basic NRDA concepts and discusses generally why and how protected marine species were assessed in the DWH NRDA.

Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia

Broadhurst MK, Millar RB. Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17302278
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Alternative configurations of Australian recreational portunid hoop nets were investigated to address debris and selectivity issues. Four treatment nets (all comprising 152-mm polyamide–PA mesh) were assessed that differed in their twine (conventional multifilament vs new multi-monofilament) and fishing configuration (conventional conical vs inverted shapes). The conical multifilament design lost means (± SEs) of 130.6 ± 23.1 and 5.3 ± 1.2 mm of twine 3-h soak− 1 when used to target Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. Inverting this hoop net significantly reduced legal-sized catches (by up to 70%) and with greater twine loss (× 5) when targeting Ppelagicus. Conversely, both multi-monofilament configurations maintained legal catches of Sserrata and Ppelagicus, but lost 78 and 95% less twine than the conical multifilament design. Using multi-monofilament hoop nets could reduce PA debris by thousands of m p.a. in south-eastern Australia, without affecting targeted catches. Further, a lower fishing height of inverted multi-monofilament nets might reduce non-portunid bycatch.

Mediterranean Sea: A Failure of the European Fisheries Management System

Cardinale M, Scarcella G. Mediterranean Sea: A Failure of the European Fisheries Management System. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00072/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea fisheries are governed by the European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Despite the fact that both areas are managed under the same broad fishery management system, a large discrepancy in management performance occurs, with recent considerable improvement of stock status witnessed in the North East Atlantic and a rapidly deteriorating situation in the Mediterranean Sea. The control of fishing effort combined with specific technical measures, such as gear regulation, establishment of a minimum conservation reference size, and selective closure of areas and seasons, is the main management strategy adopted by Mediterranean Sea EU countries. On the other hand TAC (Total Allowable Catches) is the major regulatory mechanisms in the North East Atlantic. Here, we analyzed all available stock assessment and effort data for the most important commercial species and fleets in the Mediterranean Sea since 2003. The analysis shows that there is no apparent relationship between nominal effort and fishing mortality for all species. Fishing mortality has remained stable during the last decade, for most species, with a significant decline observed only for red mullet and giant red shrimp but an increase for sardine stocks. Also, current F is larger or much larger than FMSY for all species. Despite catch advice are produced by STECF each year, the realized catches have usually been much larger than the scientific advice. A recent analysis argued that this dichotomy might be due to several factors, such as the better enforcement of monitoring control and surveillance in North East Atlantic, the more complex socio-economic situation and the less effective management governance in the Mediterranean Sea. Here we argue instead that major reasons for the alarming situation of Mediterranean Sea stocks can be found in the ineffectiveness of the current effort system to control F, the continuous non-adherence to the scientific advice and inadequacies of existing national management plans as a key management measure. It is therefore undoubted that alternatives management measures as a TAC based system are necessary if Europe is willing to achieve the objectives of the CFP before 2020 in the Mediterranean Sea.

Climate Change: Impacts, Uncertainties and Adaptation: Social Capital, Resilience and Adaptation on Small Islands

Petzold J. Climate Change: Impacts, Uncertainties and Adaptation: Social Capital, Resilience and Adaptation on Small Islands. In: Social Capital, Resilience and Adaptation on Small Islands. Social Capital, Resilience and Adaptation on Small Islands. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 17 - 61. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-52225-8_2
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

This chapter provides a brief overview of the latest insights from climate change research, including expected impacts and implications of uncertainty, with a focus on sea-level rise and adaptation.

Overwinter habitat selection by Antarctic krill under varying sea-ice conditions: implications for top predators and fishery management

Reiss CS, Cossio A, Santora JA, Dietrich KS, Murray A, Mitchell BG, Walsh J, Weiss EL, Gimpel C, Jones CD, et al. Overwinter habitat selection by Antarctic krill under varying sea-ice conditions: implications for top predators and fishery management. Marine Ecology Progress Series [Internet]. 2017 ;568:1 - 16. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v568/p1-16/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change will affect Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, krill-dependent predators, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean as areas typically covered by sea ice become ice-free in some winters. Research cruises conducted around the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic Peninsula during winters with contrasting ice conditions provide the first acoustic estimates of krill biomass, habitat use, and association with top predators to examine potential interactions with the krill fishery. Krill abundance was very low in offshore waters during all winters. In Bransfield Strait, median krill abundance was an order of magnitude higher (8 krill m-2) compared to summer (0.25 krill m-2), and this pattern was observed in all winters regardless of ice cover. Acoustic estimates of krill biomass were also an order of magnitude higher (~5500000 metric tons [t] in 2014) than a 15 yr summer average (520000 t). Looking at krill-dependent predators, during winter, crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophagus were concentrated in Bransfield Strait where ice provided habitat, while Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella were more broadly distributed. Krill overwinter in coastal basin environments independent of ice and primary production and in an area that is becoming more frequently ice-free. While long-term projections of climate change have focused on changing krill habitat and productivity declines, more immediate impacts of ongoing climate change include increased risks of negative fishery-krill-predator interactions, alteration of upper trophic level community structure, and changes in the pelagic ecology of this system. Development of management strategies to mitigate the increased risk to krill populations and their dependent predators over management timescales will be necessary to minimize the impacts of long-term climate change.

Species-specific responses of demersal fishes to near-bottom oxygen levels within the California Current large marine ecosystem

Keller AA, Ciannelli L, Wakefield WW, Simon V, Barth JA, Pierce SD. Species-specific responses of demersal fishes to near-bottom oxygen levels within the California Current large marine ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series [Internet]. 2017 ;568:151 - 173. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v568/p151-173/
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Long-term environmental sampling provided information on catch and near-bottom oxygen levels across a range of depths and conditions from the upper to the lower limit of the oxygen minimum zone and shoreward across the continental shelf of the US west coast (US-Canada to US-Mexico). During 2008 to 2014, near-bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 5.5 ml l-1 with 63.2% of sites experiencing hypoxia (DO < 1.43 ml l-1). The relationship between catch per unit effort (CPUE) and DO was estimated for 34 demersal fish species in 5 subgroups by life history category (roundfishes, flatfishes, shelf rockfishes, slope rockfishes and thornyheads) using generalized additive models (GAMs). Models included terms for position, time, near-bottom environmental measurements (salinity, temperature, oxygen) and bottom depth. Significant positive relationships between CPUE and DO occurred for 19 of 34 groundfish species within hypoxic bottom waters. Community effects (total CPUE and species richness for demersal fishes) also exhibited significant and positive relationships with low near-bottom oxygen levels. GAM analysis revealed an apparent threshold effect at lower oxygen levels, where small changes in oxygen produced large changes in catch for several species, as well as total catch and species richness. An additional 7 species displayed negative trends. Based on Akaike’s information criterion values, near-bottom oxygen played a major role in the distribution of flatfishes, roundfishes and thornyheads. By examining similarities and differences in the response of various subgroups of commercially important groundfish species to low DO levels, we uncovered ecological inferences of potential value to future ecosystem-based management.

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