2017-04-12

What Works in Conservation 2017

Sutherland WJ, Dicks LV, Ockendon N, Smith RK eds. What Works in Conservation 2017. Second edition. Open Book Publishers; 2017. Available from: http://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/552/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

Is leaving headlands in fields unsprayed beneficial for wildlife?
Is paying farmers to cover the costs of bird conservation measures effective?
Is using prescribed fire beneficial for young trees in forests?
Does translocating frogs benefit wild populations?
Is providing artificial roost structures for bats beneficial?

What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 763 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. Chapters cover the practical global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.

This is the second edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis. It is also available as a free-to-download PDF at www.conservationevidence.com
Arcadia, Synchronicity Earth, ESRC, NERC, Natural England and Waitrose Ltd have generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.

The Community Structure of Deep-Sea Macrofauna Associated with Polymetallic Nodules in the Eastern Part of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone

De Smet B, Pape E, Riehl T, Bonifácio P, Colson L, Vanreusel A. The Community Structure of Deep-Sea Macrofauna Associated with Polymetallic Nodules in the Eastern Part of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00103/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Deep-sea areas characterized by the presence of polymetallic nodules are getting increased attention due to their potential commercial and strategic interest for metals such as nickel, copper, and cobalt. The polymetallic nodules occur in areas beyond national jurisdiction, regulated by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Under exploration contracts, contractors have the obligation to determine the environmental baseline in the exploration areas. Despite a large number of scientific cruises to the central east Pacific Ocean, few published data on the macrofaunal biodiversity and community structure are available for the abyssal fields of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ). This study focused on the macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community structure in three physically comparable, mineable sites located in the license area of Global Sea Mineral Resources N.V. (GSR), at ~4,500 m depth. A homogeneous but diverse macrofaunal community associated with the sediment from polymetallic nodule areas was observed at a scale of 10 to 100 s of km. However, slight differences in the abundance and diversity of Polychaeta between sites can be explained by a decline in the estimated flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) along a southeast-northwest gradient, as well as by small differences in sediment characteristics and nodule abundance. The observed homogeneity in the macrofaunal community is an important prerequisite for assigning areas for impact and preservation reference zones. However, a precautionary approach regarding mining activities is recommended, awaiting further research during the exploration phase on environmental factors structuring macrofaunal communities in the CCFZ. For instance, future studies should consider habitat heterogeneity, which was previously shown to structure macrofauna communities at larger spatial scales. Acknowledging the limited sampling in the current study, a large fraction (59–85%; depending on the richness estimator used and the macrofaunal taxon of interest) of the macrofaunal genus/species diversity from the habitat under study was characterized.

Challenges in mainstreaming climate change into productive coastal sectors in a Small Island State – The case of Trinidad and Tobago

Hassanali K. Challenges in mainstreaming climate change into productive coastal sectors in a Small Island State – The case of Trinidad and Tobago. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;142:136 - 142. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569116302599
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In ratifying the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Trinidad and Tobago gave its commitment to contribute towards mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and instituting measures for adapting to climate change impacts. Formulation of a National Climate Change Policy subsequently took place with a view to providing direction towards fulfilling UNFCCC obligations.

The National Climate Change Policy identified that coastal areas of Trinidad and Tobago were particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. As a small island State, the country cannot afford its productive sectors operating in and/or reliant upon coastal resources to be at risk, even as some contribute to the climate change phenomenon. The increasing threat to socio-cultural, economic and environmental sustainability posed by climate change, was acknowledged in the Draft National Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Policy Framework which aims to treat with climate change impacts in the coastal zone and reduce vulnerability to associated hazards.

Given the stated objectives of the National Climate Change Policy and the Draft National ICZM Policy Framework, this paper examined the policy and plans in place to integrate climate change considerations into management for the coastal sectors of fisheries, energy, tourism and maritime transport. It found that the mainstreaming of climate change mitigation and adaptation responses in these coastal sectors has not been as effective as needed. Progress in this regard was constrained by human, financial and technical resource availability. Proposed are rationalised institutional arrangements which, if statutorily grounded, will better allow for achieving co-ordinated climate change mitigation and adaptation outcomes in Trinidad and Tobago.

Mapping ecosystem services for marine spatial planning: Recreation opportunities in Sub-Antarctic Chile

Nahuelhual L, Vergara X, Kusch A, Campos G, Droguett D. Mapping ecosystem services for marine spatial planning: Recreation opportunities in Sub-Antarctic Chile. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:211 - 218. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16308296
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The ecosystem services approach has increasingly emerged as a core requirement of ecosystem-based management of the marine space. In this context, explicit quantification and mapping of ecosystem services is considered key. This research proposes a methodological framework that combines Geographic Information Systems and participatory techniques to map the ecosystem service of recreation opportunities, provided by coastal and marine ecosystems. Attributes selected to represent the ecosystem service were scenic beauty, unique natural resources, accessibility, cultural sites and tourism use aptitude. High values of the indicator concentrated on areas that combined the presence of unique marine fauna (e.g. Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina), terrestrial and marine routs, and areas of high scenic beauty, associated to the presence of glaciers. These areas corresponded to the southern part of Almirantazgo Sound, the northern part of Navarino Island on the coast of the Beagle Channel, and to areas surrounding Wulaia fishermen's cove. Zones showing highest values of the indicator 81–100) comprised 0.89% of the study area and a small proportion of them coincided with areas of aptitude for aquaculture, which represents potential use conflicts, as long as aquaculture concessions remain operative. In turn, the areas of lowest values 0–20) were located offshore in open sea, and comprised 0.49% of the study area. Overall, the methodology demonstrated the capacity to identify potential recreation areas to inform regional decision making regarding marine use planning.

A dynamic economic equilibrium model for the economic assessment of the fishery stock-rebuilding policies

Da-Rocha J-M, Prellezo R, Sempere J, Antelo LTaboada. A dynamic economic equilibrium model for the economic assessment of the fishery stock-rebuilding policies. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:185 - 195. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1630820X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The paper develops and analyses a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents that can be used for assessment of the economic consequences of fish stock-rebuilding policies within the EU. In the model, entry and exit processes for individual plants (vessels) are endogenous, as well as output, employment and wages. This model is applied to a fishery of the Mediterranean Sea. The results provide both individual and aggregate data that can help managers in understanding the economic consequences of rebuilding strategies. In particular, this study shows that, for the application presented, all aggregate results improve if the stock rebuilding strategy is followed, while individual results depend on the indicator selected.

Potential for spatial displacement of Cook Inlet beluga whales by anthropogenic noise in critical habitat

Small RJ, Brost B, Hooten M, Castellote M, Mondragon J. Potential for spatial displacement of Cook Inlet beluga whales by anthropogenic noise in critical habitat. Endangered Species Research [Internet]. 2017 ;32:43 - 57. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v32/p43-57/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The population of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, declined by nearly half in the mid-1990s, primarily from an unsustainable harvest, and was listed as endangered in 2008. In 2014, abundance was ~340 whales, and the population trend during 1999-2014 was -1.3% yr-1. Cook Inlet beluga whales are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts, and noise that has the potential to reduce communication and echolocation range considerably has been documented in critical habitat; thus, noise was ranked as a high potential threat in the Cook Inlet beluga Recovery Plan. The current recovery strategy includes research on effects of threats potentially limiting recovery, and thus we examined the potential impact of anthropogenic noise in critical habitat, specifically, spatial displacement. Using a subset of data on anthropogenic noise and beluga detections from a 5 yr acoustic study, we evaluated the influence of noise events on beluga occupancy probability. We used occupancy models, which account for factors that affect detection probability when estimating occupancy, the first application of these models to examine the potential impacts of anthropogenic noise on marine mammal behavior. Results were inconclusive, primarily because beluga detections were relatively infrequent. Even though noise metrics (sound pressure level and noise duration) appeared in high-ranking models as covariates for occupancy probability, the data were insufficient to indicate better predictive ability beyond those models that only included environmental covariates. Future studies that implement protocols designed specifically for beluga occupancy will be most effective for accurately estimating the effect of noise on beluga displacement.

Coral Reef Conservation Strategies for Everyone

Lohr KE, Patterson JT. Coral Reef Conservation Strategies for Everyone. Gainesville, FL: Florida Sea Grant; 2016. Available from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fa199
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Despite their high value, the future of coral reefs is currently in jeopardy. Recent studies have shown that many reefs worldwide have lost 50–90% of live coral over the past 30–40 years (Baker 2014). Corals are dying worldwide as a result of multiple stressors, many of them human-induced (Pandolfi 2003). Conservation and restoration of coral reef habitats are key to their future and the future of nations that depend on them, including the United States. An important part of any conservation effort must be to reduce or eliminate the stressors that are causing reefs to become degraded. This article will outline some of the major threats to coral reefs and the strategies that everyone, whether living one mile or one thousand miles from a coral reef, can use to help reduce negative impacts on these ecosystems and preserve their services for years to come.

Relationships between angling effort and fish abundance in recreational marine fisheries

Camp EV, Ahrens RNM, Allen MS, Lorenzen K. Relationships between angling effort and fish abundance in recreational marine fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology [Internet]. 2016 ;23(3-4):264 - 275. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fme.12168/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Relationships between angling effort and fish abundance have critical implications for the resilience and management of recreational fisheries, but these relationships have rarely been assessed empirically. Here, angling effort was related to fish abundance in three marine recreational fisheries in Florida, USA, through a suite of regression and time series methods that accounted for socio-economic and demographic variables. Overall, recreational angling effort was correlated with fish abundance, but further analyses provided little evidence of strong, causal relationships. Lack of strong relationships implies angling effort might increase in the future unrelated to fish abundance, a decoupling that could threaten the viability of fish populations in the absence of unpopular recreational effort limitation. The inability to establish more conclusive relationships between effort and fish abundance should motivate a future focus towards natural or manipulative experiments that may provide more powerful inferences.

An assessment of post-release mortality for a commonly discarded deep-sea isopod (Bathynomus giganteus) using reflex impairment

Talwar B, Brooks EJ, R. Grubbs D. An assessment of post-release mortality for a commonly discarded deep-sea isopod (Bathynomus giganteus) using reflex impairment. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2016 ;73(9):2356 - 2363. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/73/9/2356/2198931/An-assessment-of-post-release-mortality-for-a?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) rates for discarded bycatch are largely unknown across marine fisheries and represent a substantial source of uncertainty when estimating total fishery mortality. One way to predict PRM is through the use of reflex action mortality predictors (RAMP), whereby the presence or absence of target reflexes and known post-release fate are used to create a delayed mortality model. We employed reflex impairment assessments in concert with post-capture caging and video monitoring to predict 5-d PRM rates for the deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus giganteus, a common bycatch species in numerous deepwater fisheries worldwide, and also considered the factors contributing to mortality. Mortality rates 5 d post-capture ranged from 50 to 100% and both RAMP scores and time at the surface were significant predictors of mortality, although our conclusions regarding the effect of surface time are limited. In-cage video documented little movement within the 24-h monitoring period following capture, and it appeared that surviving individuals often fed within the holding period after cage deployment. Our results suggest that PRM in B. giganteus is common and that this unaccounted source of mortality should be quantified for other deep-sea crustaceans captured as bycatch.

Co-management of FAD Fisheries: A socio-economic analysis of offshore fishers residing on CARIFICO member islands

Montes N, Sidman C, Lorenzen K, Honda M, Tamura M, Ishida M. Co-management of FAD Fisheries: A socio-economic analysis of offshore fishers residing on CARIFICO member islands. Gainesville, FL: Florida Sea Grant; 2017. Available from: https://www.flseagrant.org/wp-content/uploads/CARIFCO_Survey_web.pdf
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This study aims to evaluate FAD use patterns, co-management arrangements and livelihoods of pelagic fisheries with particular emphasis on changes that have occurred in recent years, during the CARIFICO project. It also aims to assess the factors influencing the decision of fisheries to set and maintain public and private FADs.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2017-04-12