2017-05-03

Will small MPAs work?: The case of small-sized MPAs in Southern Iloilo, Philippines

Espectato LN, Napata RP, Baylon CC. Will small MPAs work?: The case of small-sized MPAs in Southern Iloilo, Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;139:24 - 32. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117300765
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Most of the marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines are small-sized and community-based, and their contribution to the conservation efforts have been usually overlooked.

This paper will present the results of the biological assessment study conducted in three community-based MPAs in Southern Iloilo, Philippines. Each MPA has a 2-ha no-take zone and this size is way below the recommended optimal size of 10–100 km2. Results show that fish biomass showed an overall increase of about 1–5 times. This is attributed to both an increase in abundance and in fish size. Fish in this survey conducted in 2013 were about 2.3–3.3 times the size of fish in the 2007 baseline data. Macroepifaunal abundance increased 2 to 8 times across the three MPA sites. However, live hard coral cover showed a parallel ∼40% decrease across all sites, which can be attributed to several factors.

The conservation goals of these MPAs have been attained. However, the results of biological assessments still need to be correlated with a study on the socioeconomic impact of the MPAs in the community to be able to arrive at good management decisions.

Experience counts: Integrating spearfishers’ skills and knowledge in the evaluation of biological and ecological impacts

Diogo H, Pereira JG, Schmiing M. Experience counts: Integrating spearfishers’ skills and knowledge in the evaluation of biological and ecological impacts. Fisheries Management and Ecology [Internet]. 2017 ;24(2):95 - 102. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fme.12206/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Fishing experience and skills are not commonly considered in recreational fishery studies. To analyse potential different biological/ecological impacts of three experience levels of spearfishers (novice, intermediate and experienced), access point surveys were conducted over a period of 10 months in São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago). Groups differed in terms of catch rate and composition, species size and vulnerability (i.e. intrinsic vulnerability index of fishes to fishing). Experienced spearfishers explored different areas along the island coast, fished deeper and farther off shore, were more selective regarding fish size and target species, reached higher catch weights and had catches with a higher mean index of vulnerability. Results suggest that catch composition and rate not only depend on fish community and ecosystem health, but also on the expertise of the fishers who operate in a given area. Consequently, scientific studies should consider fishers’ experience in the survey design and data analysis to not over- or underestimate their potential impact.

Microplastic litter composition of the Turkish territorial waters of the Mediterranean Sea, and its occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract of fish

Güven O, Gökdağ K, Jovanović B, Kıdeyş AErkan. Microplastic litter composition of the Turkish territorial waters of the Mediterranean Sea, and its occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract of fish. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2017 ;223:286 - 294. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116323910
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Microplastic pollution of marine environment is receiving increased publicity over the last few years. The present survey is, according to our knowledge, the survey with the largest sample size analyzed, to date. In total, 1337 specimens of fish were examined for the presence of plastic microlitter representing 28 species and 14 families. In addition, samples of seawater and sediment were also analyzed for the quantification of microplastic in the same region. Samples of water/sediment were collected from 18 locations along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. 94% of all collected plastic microlitter from the sea was in the size range between 0.1 and 2.5 mm, while the occurrence of other sizes was rare. The quantity of microplastic particles in surface water samples ranged from 16 339 to 520 213 per km2. Fish were collected from 10 locations from which 8 were either shared with or situated in the proximity of water/sediment sampling locations. A total of 1822 microplastic particles were extracted from stomach and intestines of fish. Majority of ingested particles were represented by fibers (70%) and hard plastic (20.8%), while the share of other groups: nylon (2.7%), rubber (0.8%) and miscellaneous plastic (5.5%) were low. The blue color of plastic was the most dominant color. 34% of all examined fish had microplastic in the stomach. On average, fish which had microplastic contained 1.80 particles per stomach. 41% of all fish had microplastic in the intestines with an average of 1.81 particles per fish. 771 specimens contained microplastic in either stomach and/or intestines representing 58% of the total sample with an average of 2.36 particles per fish. Microplastic was found in all species/families that had sample size of at least 2 individuals. The number of particles present in either stomach or intestines ranged between 1 and 35. Ingested microplastic had an average diameter ±SD of 656 ± 803 μm, however particles as small as 9 μm were detected. The trophic level of fish species had no influence whatsoever on the amount of ingested microplastic. Pelagic fish ingested more microplastic than demersal species. In general, fish that ingested higher number of microplastic particles originated from the sites that also had a higher particle count in the seawater and sediment.

Evidence of microplastic ingestion in the shark Galeus melastomus Rafinesque, 1810 in the continental shelf off the western Mediterranean Sea

Alomar C, Deudero S. Evidence of microplastic ingestion in the shark Galeus melastomus Rafinesque, 1810 in the continental shelf off the western Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2017 ;223:223 - 229. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116310843
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Microplastic (<5 mm) ingestion has been recorded in Galeus melastomus, the blackmouth catshark, around the Balearic Islands. In total 125 individuals were analyzed for microplastic ingestion. Results have shown that 16.80% of the specimens had ingested a mean value of 0.34 ± 0.07 microplastics/individual. Stomach fullness index ranged from 0.86 to 38.89% and regression analyses showed that fuller stomachs contained more microplastics. A higher quantity of filament type microplastics were identified compared to granular or hard plastic type. No significant differences were given between ingestion values of two locations over the continental shelf providing further evidence of the ubiquitous distribution of microplastics. The findings in this study reflect the availability of this man made contaminant to marine species in seafloor habitats. Based on results from this study, data on microplastic ingestion could be used to study trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals in accordance with descriptor 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

Microplastic in the surface waters of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): Occurrence, distribution and characterization by FTIR

Cincinelli A, Scopetani C, Chelazzi D, Lombardini E, Martellini T, Katsoyiannis A, Fossi MCristina, Corsolini S. Microplastic in the surface waters of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): Occurrence, distribution and characterization by FTIR. Chemosphere [Internet]. 2017 ;175:391 - 400. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653517302023
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic (MPs) contamination in sub surface waters collected near-shore and off-shore the coastal area of the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Moreover, a non-invasive method to analyze MPs, consisting in filtration after water sampling and analysis of the dried filter through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 2D Imaging, using an FPA detector, was proposed. The non-invasiveness of analytical set-up reduces potential bias and allows subsequent analysis of the filter sample for determination of other classes of contaminants. MPs ranged from 0.0032 to 1.18 particle per m3 of seawater, with a mean value of 0.17 ± 0.34 particle m−3, showing concentrations lower than those found in the oceans worldwide. MPs included fragments (mean 71.9 ± 21.6%), fibers (mean 12.7 ± 14.3%), and others (mean 15.4 ± 12.8%). The presence of different types of MPs was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, with predominant abundance of polyethylene and polypropylene. The potential environmental impact arising from scientific activities, such as marine activities for scientific purposes, and from the sewage treatment plant, was also evidenced.

A global snapshot of marine biodiversity offsetting policy

Niner HJ, Milligan B, Jones PJS, Styan CA. A global snapshot of marine biodiversity offsetting policy. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;81:368 - 374. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16306091
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Biodiversity offsetting is used in diverse policy contexts to reduce, halt or reverse losses of biodiversity arising from development or other uses of the natural environment. Despite increasing interest in the concept of biodiversity offsetting, relatively little attention has been devoted to investigating its use in marine environments. This paper presents a systematic review of documents evidencing the application or inclusion of biodiversity offset principles in policy frameworks concerning the marine environment, and in marine development projects. Biodiversity offsetting policies applicable to marine environments were found to exist in six countries (US, Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Colombia) and have been actively considered in at least 27 others. Outside of these, a wide range of other approaches promoting uptake of biodiversity offsetting principles in a marine context were identified. These range from preliminary studies to identify potential compensatory habitat, to nascent biodiversity markets, and project-level application of corporate standards of no net loss. Evidence suggests that where offsetting policy is developed for specific marine application, the preferred approach is to pool financial contributions from developers into funds for strategic action for biodiversity benefit.

Can we manage coastal ecosystems to sequester more blue carbon?

Macreadie PI, Nielsen DA, Kelleway JJ, Atwood TB, Seymour JR, Petrou K, Connolly RM, Thomson ACG, Trevathan-Tackett SM, Ralph PJ. Can we manage coastal ecosystems to sequester more blue carbon?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fee.1484/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

To promote the sequestration of blue carbon, resource managers rely on best-management practices that have historically included protecting and restoring vegetated coastal habitats (seagrasses, tidal marshes, and mangroves), but are now beginning to incorporate catchment-level approaches. Drawing upon knowledge from a broad range of environmental variables that influence blue carbon sequestration, including warming, carbon dioxide levels, water depth, nutrients, runoff, bioturbation, physical disturbances, and tidal exchange, we discuss three potential management strategies that hold promise for optimizing coastal blue carbon sequestration: (1) reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs, (2) reinstating top-down control of bioturbator populations, and (3) restoring hydrology. By means of case studies, we explore how these three strategies can minimize blue carbon losses and maximize gains. A key research priority is to more accurately quantify the impacts of these strategies on atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions in different settings at landscape scales.

The jumbo carbon footprint of a shrimp: carbon losses from mangrove deforestation

J Kauffman B, Arifanti VB, Trejo HHernández, García Mdel Carmen, Norfolk J, Cifuentes M, Hadriyanto D, Murdiyarso D. The jumbo carbon footprint of a shrimp: carbon losses from mangrove deforestation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/fee.1482/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Scientists have the difficult task of clearly conveying the ecological consequences of forest and wetland loss to the public. To address this challenge, we scaled the atmospheric carbon emissions arising from mangrove deforestation down to the level of an individual consumer. This type of quantification represents the “land-use carbon footprint”, or the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated when natural ecosystems are converted to produce commodities. On the basis of measurements of ecosystem carbon stocks from 30 relatively undisturbed mangrove forests and 21 adjacent shrimp ponds or cattle pastures, we determined that mangrove conversion results in GHG emissions ranging between 1067 and 3003 megagrams of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per hectare. There is a land-use carbon footprint of 1440 kg CO2e for every kilogram of beef and 1603 kg CO2e for every kilogram of shrimp produced on lands formerly occupied by mangroves. A typical steak and shrimp cocktail dinner would burden the atmosphere with 816 kg CO2e. This is approximately the same quantity of GHGs produced by driving a fuel-efficient automobile from Los Angeles to New York City. Failure to include deforestation in life-cycle assessments greatly underestimates the GHG emissions from food production.

Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas

Karimi A, Tulloch AIT, Brown G, Hockings M. Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas. Conservation Biology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12947/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially-explicit social values and preferences collected using public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods with biological data. We then integrated the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial prioritization scenarios using Zonation software to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization vis-à-vis biological data alone. We found that the type of social data included in the analysis significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations that were 1.2% to 51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively little new area to conservation priorities while in contrast, including non-compatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas. The multi-faceted conservation prioritization approach presented herein that combines spatially-explicit social data with biological data can assist conservation planners in identifying the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions.

Ocean warming since 1982 has expanded the niche of toxic algal blooms in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans

Gobler CJ, Doherty OM, Hattenrath-Lehmann TK, Griffith AW, Kang Y, R. Litaker W. Ocean warming since 1982 has expanded the niche of toxic algal blooms in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2017 :201619575. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/04/18/1619575114.abstract.html?etoc
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

Global ocean temperatures are rising, yet the impacts of such changes on harmful algal blooms (HABs) are not fully understood. Here we used high-resolution sea-surface temperature records (1982 to 2016) and temperature-dependent growth rates of two algae that produce potent biotoxins, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata, to evaluate recent changes in these HABs. For both species, potential mean annual growth rates and duration of bloom seasons significantly increased within many coastal Atlantic regions between 40°N and 60°N, where incidents of these HABs have emerged and expanded in recent decades. Widespread trends were less evident across the North Pacific, although regions were identified across the Salish Sea and along the Alaskan coastline where blooms have recently emerged, and there have been significant increases in the potential growth rates and duration of these HAB events. We conclude that increasing ocean temperature is an important factor facilitating the intensification of these, and likely other, HABs and thus contributes to an expanding human health threat.

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