MSP Resources by the Center for Ocean Solutions

The Center for Ocean Solutions works to solve major problems facing the ocean and prepares leaders to take on these challenges. The Center is a collaboration between Stanford University's Woods Institute for the Environment and Hopkins Marine Station, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. With a focus on coastal and ocean ecosystems in the natural, physical, and social sciences, the Center draws from a pool of more than 80 scholars across three institutions and collaborates with other academic, governmental and non-governmental organizations to tackle interdisciplinary problems. This reference guide was developed in 2010 by the Center's Ecosystem Health Initiative staff, including Matt Armsby, Mike Fox, Erin Prahler, and Melissa Foley.

In addition to the list below, you may download this guide in PDF format.

Peer-reviewed articles

Albrecht, J. (2008). Guidelines for SEA in Marine Spatial Planning for the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)—with Special Consideration of Tiering Procedure for SEA and EIA. Standards and Thresholds for Impact Assessment, Environmental Protection in the European Union, vol. 3, Part IIa.

Archer, J. H. (1992). Sovereign Rights and Responsibilities: Applying Public Trust Principles to the Management of EEZ Space and Resources. Ocean & Coastal Management, 17, 253-271.

Ardron, J., Gjerde, K., Pullen, S., and Tilot, V. (2008). Marine spatial planning in the high seas. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 832-839.

Arkema, K. K. (2006). Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10, 525-532.

Bille, R. (2006). Integrated Coastal Zone Management: four entrenched illusions. Sapiens, 1, 75-86.

Boyes, S. J., Elliott, M., Thomson, S. M., Atkins, S., and Gilliland, P. (2007). A proposed multiple-use zoning scheme for the Irish Sea: an interpretation of current legislation through the use of GIS-based zoning approaches and effectiveness for the protection of nature conservation interests. Marine Policy, 31, 287-298.

Bruce E.M., Eliot I.G. (2006). A spatial model for marine park zoning. Coastal Management, 34, 17-38.

Carpenter, S. R., et al. (2009). Science for managing ecosystem services: beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 1305-1312.

Christensen, N. L., et al. (1996). The Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecological Applications, 6 665-691.

Cicin-Sain, B. Sustainable development and integrated coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 21, 11-43.

Costanza, R., et al. (1999). Ecological economics and sustainable governance of the oceans. Ecological Economics, 31, 171-187.

Crain, C. M., Halpern, B. S., Beck, M. W., and Kappel, C. V. (2009). Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment. Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology. Book Series: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1162, 39.

Crain C.M., Kroeker K., Halpern B.S. (2008). Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters, 11, 1304-1315.

Crowder, L. and Norse, E. (2008). Essential ecological insights for marine ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 772­-778.

Crowder, L. B., Osherenko, G., Young, O. R., Airame, S., Norse, E. A., Baron, N., et al. (2006). Resolving mismatches in U.S. ocean governance. Science, 313, 617-618.

Dalton, T., Thompson, R., and Jin, D. (2010). Mapping human dimensions in marine spatial planning and management: an example from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Marine Policy, 34, 309-319.

Day, J. (2002). Zoning—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45, 139-156.

Day, J. (2008). The need and practice of monitoring, evaluating and adapting marine planning and management—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 823-831.

Day, V., Paxinos, R., Emmett, J., Wright, A., and Goecker, M. (2008). The Marine Planning Framework for South Australia: A new ecosystem-based zoning policy for marine management. Marine Policy, 32, 535-543.

Derous, S., et al. (2007). A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment. Oceanologia, 49(1), 99-128.

deReynier, Y., et al. (2009). Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment process. Marine Policy, 34, 534-540.

Doherty, P. A. and Butler, M. (2006). Ocean zoning in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Policy, 30, 389-391.

Douvere, F. (2008). The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 762-771.

Douvere, F. and Ehler, C. (2008). Introduction. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 759-761.

Douvere, F., and Ehler, C. N. (2009). New perspectives on sea use management: Initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), 77-88.

Douvere, F., and Ehler, C. N. (2010). The importance of monitoring and evaluation in adaptive maritime spatial planning. Coastal Conservation, DOI 10.1007/s11852-010­0100-9.

Douvere, F., Maes, F., Vanhulle, A., and Schrijvers, J. (2007). The role of marine spatial planning in sea use management: the Belgian case. Marine Policy, 31, 182-191.

Edwards, S. (2008). Ocean Zoning, First Possession, and Coasean Contracts. Marine Policy 32, 46-54.

Ehler, C. and Basta, D. (1993). Integrated management of coastal areas and marine sanctuaries: a new paradigm. Oceanus, 36, 6.

Ehler, C. (2008). Conclusion: benefits, lessons learned, and future challenges of marine spatial planning. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 840.

Fanning L., Mahon R., McConney P. (2009). Focusing on living marine resource governance: The Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem and adjacent areas project. Coastal Management, 37, 219-234.

Flannery, W., and Cinnéide, M. O. (2008). Marine spatial planning from the perspective of a small seaside community in Ireland. Marine Policy, 32, 980-987.

Fletcher W.J. (2006). Frameworks for managing marine resources in Australia through ecosystem approaches: Do they fit together and are they useful? Bulletin of Marine Science, 78, 691-704.

Fock, H. O. (2008). Fisheries in the context of marine spatial planning: defining principal areas for fisheries in the German EEZ. Marine Policy, 32, 728-739.

Foley, M. M., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F., Armsby, M. H, Caldwell, M. R., Crain, C. M., Prahler, E. et al. (2010). Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning. Marine Policy, 34, 955-966.

Forst, M. F. (2009). The Convergence of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the Ecosystems Approach. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52, 294-306.

Fritz, J. (2010). Towards a 'new form of governance' in science-policy relations in the European Maritime Policy. Marine Policy, 34, 1-6.

Gaydos J.K., Dierauf L., Kirby G., Brosnan D., Gilardi K., Davis G.E. (2008). Top 10 Principles for Designing Healthy Coastal Ecosystems Like the Salish Sea. EcoHealth, 5, 460-471.

Gibbs, M. T. (2009). Resilience: What is it and what does it mean for marine policymakers? Marine Policy, 33, 322-331.

Gilman E. (2002). Guidelines for coastal and marine site-planning and examples of planning and management intervention tools. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45, 377-404.

Gilliland, P. and Laffoley, D. (2008). Key elements and steps in the process of developing ecosystem-based marine spatial planning. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 787-796.

Gleason, M. G., et al. (2006). Assessing gaps in marine conservation in California. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4, 249-258. .

Godschalk, D. R. (1992). Implementing coastal zone management: 1972–1990. Coastal Management, 20, 93-116.

Griffis, R. and Kimball, K. (1996). Ecosystem Approaches to Coastal and Ocean Stewardship. Ecological Applications, 6, 708-712.

Halpern B.S., Kappel C.V., Selkoe K.A., Micheli F., Ebert C., Kontgis C., Crain C.M., Martone R.G., Shearer C., Teck S.J. (2009). Mapping cumulative human impacts to California Current marine ecosystems. Conservation Letters, 2, 138-148.

Halpern, B. S., Leslie, H. M., McLeod, K. L. (2010). Placing Marine Protected Areas Onto the Ecosystem-based Management Landscape. Published ahead of print Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Halpern, B. S., McLeod, K. L, Rosenberg, A. A., and Crowder, L. B. (2008). Managing for cumulative impacts in ecosystem-based management through ocean zoning. Ocean & Coastal Management, 51, 203-211.

Halpern B.S., Selkoe K.A., Micheli F., Kappel C.V. (2007), Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conservation Biology, 21, 1301-1315.

Halpern B.S., Walbridge S., Selkoe K.A., Kappel C.V., Micheli F., D'Agrosa C., Bruno J.F., Casey K.S., Ebert C., Fox H.E., Fujita R., Heinemann D., Lenihan H.S., Madin E.M.P., Perry M.T., Selig E.R., Spalding M., Steneck R., Watson R. (2008). A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 319, 948-952.

Hildreth, R. (2008). Place-based ocean management: emerging U.S. law and practice. Ocean and Coastal Management, 51, 659-670.

Humphrey, S., et al. (2000). U.S. lessons for coastal management in the European Union. Marine Policy, 24, 275-286.

Juda, L. and Burroughs, R. H. (1990). The prospects for comprehensive ocean management. Marine Policy 14, 23-35.

Kappel, C. V., Halpern, B. S., Martone, R. G., Micheli, F., and Selkoe, K. A. (2009). In the zone: comprehensive ocean protection. Issues in Science and Technology.

Keiter, R. B. (2008). Ecosystems and the law: toward an integrated approach. Ecological Applications, 8, 332-341.

Kenchington, R. A. and Agardy, M. T. (1990). Achieving marine conservation through biosphere reserve planning and management. Environmental Conservation, 17, 39-44.

Klein, C. J., Steinback, C., Wats, M., Scholz, A., and Possingham, H. P. (2009). Spatial marine zoning for fisheries and conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Available electronically.

Leslie, H. M., and McLeod, K. L. (2007). Confronting the Challenges of Implementing Marine Ecosystem-Based Management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 540-548.

Lester S.E., McLeod K.L., Tallis H., Ruckelshaus M., Halpern B.S., Levin P.S., Chavez F.P., Pomeroy C., McCay B.J., Costello C., Gaines S.D., Mace A.J., Barth J.A., Fluharty D.L., Parrish J.K. (2010). Science in support of ecosystem-based management for the US West Coast and beyond. Biological Conservation, 143, 576-587.

Levin, P. S., et al. (2009). Integrated Ecosystem Assessments: Developing the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem-Based Management of the Ocean. Plos Biology, 7, 23-28.

Levin, S. A. and Lubchenco, J. (2008). Resilience, Robustness, and Marine Ecosystem-Based Management. BioScience, 58, 27-32 (2008).

Li, H. (2006). Impacts and Implications of the legal framework for sea use planning and management in China. Ocean & Coastal Management, 49, 717-726.

Lowry, K. (1985). Assessing the implementation of federal coastal policy. Journal of the American Planning Association, 51, 288-298.

Maes, F. (2008). The international legal framework for marine spatial planning. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 797.

Matuszeski, W. (1985). Managing the Federal Coastal Program: the planning years. Journal of the American Planning Association, 51, 266-274.

Mayer, K. R. (1999). Executive orders and presidential power, The Journal of Politics, 61, 445-466.

McKenna, J. (2008). Managing by principle: A critical analysis of the European principles of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Marine Policy, 32, 941-955.

Morgan, L. E., C. F. Tsao and J. M. Guinotte (2007). Ecosystem-based management as a tool for protecting deep-sea corals in the USA. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81, 39-48.

Morrison K.K., Snow-Cotter S. (2008). Toward more integrated ocean governance in Massachusetts: A progress report. Coastal Management, 36, 412-430.

Nobre, A. M. and Ferreira, J. G. (2009). Integration of ecosystem-based tools to support coastal zone management. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, 1676-1680.

Norse, E.A. (2010). Ecosystem based spatial planning and management of marine fisheries: Why and how? Bulletin of Marine Science, 89, 179-195.

O'Boyle R., Sinclair M., Keizer P., Lee K., Ricard D., Yeats P. (2005). Indicators for ecosystem-based management on the Scotian Shelf: bridging the gap between theory and practice. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 598-605.

Olsen, E., Gjøsæter, H., Røttingen, I., Dommasnes, A., Fossum, P., and Sandberg, P. (2007). The Norwegian ecosystem-based management plan for the Barents Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 599–602.

Peel, D. and Lloyd, M. G. (2004). The social reconstruction of the marine environment: toward marine spatial planning? The Town Planning Review, 75, 359-378.

Plasman, C. (2008). Implementing marine spatial planning: a policy perspective. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 811-815.

Pomeroy, R. and Douvere, F. (2008). The engagement of stakeholders in the marine spatial planning process. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 816-822.

Portman, M. E., Duff, J. A., KÖppel, J., Reisert, J., and Higgins, M. E. (2009). Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone: legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the U.S. Energy Policy, 37, 3596-3607.

Ruckelshaus M., Klinger T., Knowlton N., Demaster D.R. (2008) Marine ecosystem-based management in practice: Scientific, and governance challenges. BioScience, 58, 53-63.

Rutherford, R. J., Herbert, G. J., and Coffen-Smout, S. S. (2005). Integrated ocean management and the collaborative planning process: the Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative. Marine Policy, 29, 75-83.

Sanchirico, J. N., Eagle, J., Palumbi, S., and Thompson, B. (2010). Comprehensive planning, dominant-use zones, and user rights: a new era in ocean governance. Bulletin of Marine Science, 86, 1-13.

Selkoe K.A., Halpern B.S., Ebert C.M., Franklin E.C., Selig E.R., Casey K.S., Bruno J., Toonen R.J. (2009). A map of human impacts to a "pristine" coral reef ecosystem, the PapahAnaumokuAkea Marine National Monument. Coral Reefs, 28, 635-650.

Shanley, R. A. (1983). Presidential executive orders and environmental policy. Presidential Studies Quarterly 13, 405-416.

Stanford, J. A. and Poole, G. C. (1996). A protocol for ecosystem management. 6 Ecological Applications, 6, 741-744.

St. Martin, K., and Hall-Arber, M. (2008). The missing layer: geo-technologies, communities, and implications for marine spatial planning. Marine Policy Special Issue, 32, 779-786.

Strain, L., et al. (2006). Marine administration and spatial data infrastructure, Marine Policy, 30, 431-441.

Tallis, H., Levin, P. S., Ruckelshaus, M., Lester, S. E., McLeod, K. L., Fluharty, D. L., and Halpern, B. S. (2010). The many faces of ecosystem-based management: Making the process work today in real places. Marine Policy, 34, 340-348.

Tallis H., Polasky S. (2009). Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services as an Approach for Conservation and Natural-Resource Management. Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 2009, 1162, 265-283.

Taussik, J. (2007). The opportunities of spatial planning for the integrated coastal zone management. Marine Policy, 31, 611-618.

Teck S.J., Halpern B.S., Kappel C.V., Micheli F., Selkoe K.A., Crain C.M., Martone R., Shearer C., Arvai J., Fischhoff B., Murray G., Neslo R., Cooke R. (2010). Using expert judgment to estimate marine ecosystem vulnerability in the California Current. Ecological Applications, 20, 1402-1416.

Thia-Eng, Chua (1993). Essential elements of integrated coastal zone management, Ocean & Coastal Management, 21, 81-108.

Turnipseed, M., Crowder, L. B., Sagarin, R. D., and Roady, S. E. (2009). Legal Bedrock for rebuilding America’s ocean ecosystems. Science, 324, 183-184.

Underdal, A. (1980). Integrated marine policy: What? Why? How? 4 Marine Policy, 4, 159-169.

Villa, F., Tunesi, L., and Agardy, T. (2002). Zoning marine protected areas through spatial multiple-criteria analysis: the case of the Asinara Island National Marine Reserve of Italy. Conservation Biology, 16, 515-526.

Watts M.E., Ball I.R., Stewart R.S., Klein C.J., Wilson K., Steinback C., Lourival R., Kircher L., Possingham H.P. (2009). Marxan with Zones: Software for optimal conservation based land- and sea-use zoning. Environmental Modeling & Software, 24, 1513-1521.

Wigdon, R. C. (1996). Recent presidential experience with executive orders. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 26, 473-484.

Yandle, T., Osherenko, G., Young, O. R., Crowder, L. B., Wilson, J. A., and Norse, E. A. (2006). Property rights and ocean governance. Science, 314, 593-595.

Young, O. R., Osherenko, G., Ekstrom, J., Crowder, L. B., Ogden, J., Wilson, J. A., Day, J. C., Douvere, F., Ehler, C. N., McLeod, K. L., Halpern, B. S., and Peach, R. (2007). Solving the crisis in ocean governance: place-based management of marine ecosystems. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 49, 22-32.

Zile, Z.L. (1974). A legislative-political history of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972. Coastal Management,1, 235-274.

Law review articles

Baird, B. E. and Burroughs, J. T. (1994). California's Ocean Resources Management Program. Natural Resources & Environment, 9, 44-47.

Breeden, R. (1976). Federalism and the Development of Outer Continental Shelf Mineral Resources. Stanford Law Review, 28, 1107-1159.

Cicin-Sain, B. and Knecht, R. W. (1985). The problem of governance of U.S. ocean resources and the new exclusive economic zone. Ocean Development & International Law, 15, 289-320.

Eagle, J. (2008). The Practical Effects of Delegation: Agencies and the Zoning of Public Lands and Seas. Pepperdine Law Review, 35, 835-894.

Eagle, J., Sanchirico, J. and Thompson Jr., B. H. (2008). Ocean Zoning and Spatial Access Privileges: Rewriting the Tragedy of the Regulated Ocean. N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal, 17, 646-668.

Eichenberg, T. and Archer, J. (1987). The Federal Consistency Doctrine: Coastal Zone Management and “New Federalism.” Ecology Law Quarterly 14, 9-68.

Hershman, M. and Folkenroth, J. C. (1975). Coastal Zone Management and Intergovernmental Coordination. Oregon Law Review, 54, 13-33.

Hildreth, R. (1993). The Public Trust Doctrine and Coastal and Ocean Resources Management. Journal of Environmental Law & Litigation, 8, 221-236.

Hildreth, R. and Johnson, R. (1985). CZM in California, Oregon, and Washington. Natural Resources Journal, 25, 103-165.

Juda, L. (2003). Changing National Approaches to Ocean Governance: The United States, Canada, and Australia. Ocean Development & International Law, 34, 161-187.

Juda, L. (1993). Ocean policy, multi-use management, and the cumulative impact of piecemeal change: the case of the United States outer continental shelf. Ocean Development & International Law, 24, 355-376.

Kalen, S. (2006). The Coastal Zone Management Act of Today: Does Sustainability Have a Chance? Southeastern Environmental Law Journal, 15, 191-221.

Osherenko, G. (2006). New Discourses on Ocean Governance: Understanding Property Rights and the Public Trust. Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation, 21, 317-381.

Percival, R. V. (2001). Separation of Powers, the Presidency and the Environment. Journal of Land Resources and Environmental Law, 21, 25-66.

Rodgers, W. H. (2001). Executive Orders and Presidential Commands: Presidents Riding to the Rescue of the Environment. Journal of Land Resources and Environmental Law, 21, 13-24.

Salcido, R. (2008). Offshore Federalism and Ocean Industrialization, Tulane Law Review, 82, 1355-1445.

Sivas, D. and Caldwell, M. (2008). A New Vision For California Ocean Governance: Comprehensive Ecosystem Based Marine Zoning. Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 27, 209-270.

Turnipseed, M., Roady, S. E., Sagarin, R., and Crowder, L. B. (2009). The Silver Anniversary of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone: Twenty-Five Years of Ocean Use and Abuse and the Possibility of a Blue Water Public Trust Doctrine. Ecology Law Quarterly, 36, 1-70.

Duke Law and Policy Forum, Spring 2006 — Ocean Ecosystem Management: Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Ocean Governance

Baird, B. E., and Mace, A. J., Regional Ocean Governance: A Look at California. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 217-226.

Christie, D. R. (2006). An Ecosystem Approach to Ocean Management: An Assessment of Regional Ocean Governance Models. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 117-142.

Eagle, J. (2006). Regional Ocean Governance: the Perils of Multiple Use Management and the Promise of Agency Diversity. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 143-178.

Fletcher, K. M., Regional Ocean Governance: The Role of the Public Trust Doctrine. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 187-204.

Hanna, S. S. (2006). Implementing Effective Regional Ocean Governance: Perspectives from Economics. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 205-216.

Hershman, M. J. and Russell, C. W. Regional Ocean Governance in the United States: Concept and Realty. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 227-266.

Nugent, I. and Cantral., L. (2006). Charting a Course toward Ecosystem-Based Management in the Gulf of Mexico. Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 267-292.

Rosenberg, A. A., Regional Ocean Governance and Ecosystem-based Management of Ocean and Coastal Resources: Can We Get There from Here? Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum, 16, 179-186.

Examples of legal and policy materials


Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, Act No. 91 of 1999, as amended (2010).

Australia, Department of the Environment and Heritage (2006). A Guide to the Integrated Marine and Coastal Bioregionalisation of Australia (IMCRA 4.0).


Oceans Act 1996, S.C. 1996, c. 31.

Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2002). Policy and Operational Framework for Integrated Management of Estuarine, Coastal and Marine Environments in Canada.

European Union

European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, COM(2007) 575 final (Oct. 10, 2007).

European Commission, Communication from the Commission, Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU, COM(2008) 791 final (Nov. 25, 2008).

United Kingdom

Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, c. 23.

Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 (2010 A.S.P. 5).

United States - Federal

Executive Order No. 13158, Marine Protected Areas (May 26, 2000), 65 Fed. Reg. 34,909 (May 31, 2000).

Executive Order No. 13547, Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (July 19, 2010), 75 Fed. Reg. 43,023 (July 22, 2010).

The White House Council on Environmental Quality (2009). Interim Report of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force.

The White House Council on Environmental Quality (2009). Interim Framework for Effective Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning.

The White House Council on Environmental Quality (2010). Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force.

United States – State-level

California Marine Life Protection Act, Cal. Stats. 1999, c. 1015 (1999), Cal. Fish and Game Code § 2850 et seq (Westlaw 2009).

Massachusetts Oceans Act of 2008, c. 114 of the Acts of 2008, M.G.L. 21A § 4C (Westlaw 2009).

Oregon Ocean Resources Management Act, Laws 1991, c. 501, ORS 196.405 – 196.515 (Westlaw 2009)

Oregon Statewide Planning Goals and Guidelines, OAR 660-015-0010(4), Goal 19: Ocean Resources.

Oregon Territorial Sea Plan, Part Five: Use of the Territorial Sea for the Development of Renewable Energy Facilities or Other Related Structures, Equipment, or Facilities.

Washington Marine Waters Planning and Management Act, c. 145, Laws of 2010.

Examples of plans and planning documents

Australia, Heap. A. D., et al., (2005). Benthic Marine Bioregionalisation of Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone: A Report to the National Oceans Office on the Development of a National Benthic Marine Bioregionalisation in support of Regional Marine Planning. Commonwealth of Australia, Geoscience Australia.

Australia, McDonald, D., et al. (2005). Pelagic Regionalisation: National Marine Bioregionalisation Integration Project. Department of the Environment and Heritage and CSIRO.

Australia, Great Barrier Marine Park Authority (2004). Great Barrier Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003.

Belgium, Belgium Science Policy, GAUFRE (2005). A Flood of Space: Towards a Spatial Structure Plan for Sustainable Management of the North Sea.

Canada, Beaufort Sea Partnership (2009). The Beaufort Sea Integrated Ocean Management Planning Atlas.

Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2007). Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan, Strategic Plan.

Ecuador, Servicio Parque Nacional Galapágos (1998). Management Plan for Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

Germany, Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (2009). Guidelines for a “Maritime Development Plan” within the context of an integrated German maritime policy.

Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) (2007). Baltic Sea Action Plan.

Netherlands, Interdepartmental Directors Consultative Committee North Sea (2005). The Integrated Management Plan for the North Sea 2015.

New Zealand, Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation (2006). Marine Protected Areas: Policy and Implementation Plan.

New Zealand, Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation (2008). Marine Protected Areas: Classification, Protection Standard and Implementation Guidelines.

Norway, Royal Norwegian Ministry of the Environment (2006). Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the Barents Sea and the Sea Areas off the Lofoten Islands.

Tyldesley, D. (2004). Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Framework for the Irish Sea Pilot Project.

United Kingdom, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004). The Irish Sea Pilot: Report to Defra by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

United Kingdom, Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (July 2010). Consultation on a marine planning system in England.

United States, California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Life Protection Act Initiative (2008). California Marine Life Protection Act: Master Plan for Marine Protected Areas.

United States, Massachusetts Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (2009). Final Massachusetts Ocean Plan, vol. 1.

Final Massachusetts Ocean Plan, vol. 2.

Final Massachusetts Ocean Plan, Science Framework.

United States, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuaries Program (2007). Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Revised Management Plan.

White papers and book chapters

Blaesbjerg, M., Sorensen, T. K., and Vestergaard, O. (2009). Marine Spatial Planning in the Nordic Region: Principles, Perspectives and Opportunities. Norden.

Breeze H. (2004). Review of Criteria for Selecting Ecologically Significant Areas of the Scotian Shelf and Slope: A Discussion Paper. In: Canada FaO (ed) Ocean and Coastal Management Report. Maris Consulting, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Cairns C., Armsby M., Hoffman C., Wood M. (2009) Collaborative Geospatial Information and Tools for California Coastal and Ocean Managers. Center for Ocean Solutions, NOAA Coastal Services Center, California Ocean Protection Council, California Ocean Science Trust, Palo Alto, CA.

The Consortium for Ocean Leadership (2009). Science Requirements for Marine Spatial Planning.

Courtney, F. and Wiggin, J. (2003). Ocean Zoning for the Gulf of Maine: A background paper. Gulf of Maine Council for the Marine Environment.

Day, J. (2002). Marine park management and monitoring: lessons for adaptive management from the Great Barrier Reef. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, May 14-19, 2000 (Eds. S. Bondrup-Nielsen, et al.), 1258-1282.

Diamond, J., Schemp, A., Mengerink, K., and Austin, J. (2009). Marine Spatial Planning in U.S. Waters: An Assessment and Analysis of Existing Legal Mechanisms, Anticipated Barriers, and Future Opportunities. Environmental Law Institute and Ocean Conservancy.

Douvere, F. and Ehler, C. (2007). International workshop on marine spatial planning, UNESCO, Paris, 8-10 November 2006: A summary. Marine Policy, 31(4), 582-583.

Douvere, F., and Ehler, C. N. (2007). The need for a common vocabulary for marine spatial planning in ecosystem-based marine management. Paper prepared for the ENCORA Network.

Eastern Research Group and NOAA Coastal Services Center (2010). Marine Spatial Planning Stakeholder Analysis.

Ehler, C. and Douvere, F. (2007). Visions for a Sea Change: Report of the First International Workshop on Marine Spatial Planning. Man and the Biosphere Programme, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO. IOC Manual and Guides No. 48, IOCAM Dossier No. 4. Paris.

Ehler, C. and Douvere, F. (2009). Marine spatial planning: A step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management. Man and the Biosphere Programme, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO. IOC Manual and Guides No. 53, IOCAM Dossier No. 6. Paris.

Gopnik, M. (2008). Integrated Marine Spatial Planning in U.S. Waters: The Path Forward. Paper prepared for the Marine Conservation Initiative of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2002). Biophysical operational principles as recommended by the scientific steering committee for the Representative Areas Program.

Gubbay, S. (2005). Marine Protected Areas and Zoning in a System of Marine Spatial Planning. World Wildlife Federation, United Kingdom.

Holliday, M. C. and Gautam, A. B., eds. (2005). Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-77.

Massachusetts Ocean Management Task Force (2004). Waves of Change: the Massachusetts Ocean Management Task Force Reports and Recommendations.

Mengerink, K. and Armsby, M. (2010). Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Legal Considerations. Environmental Law Institute and the Center for Ocean Solutions.

MRAG Americas and the Massachusetts Ocean Partnership, with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and UMass Boston (2009), Science Tools for Ecosystem-Based Management.

The Nature Conservancy (2009). Best Practices for Marine Spatial Planning.

Norse, E., Morgan, L., Osherenko, G., and Ekstrom, J. (2007). Spatial management: An ecosystem-based way of protecting marine biodiversity and separating incompatible uses. Proceedings of Coastal Zone 07. Portland, Oregon July 22-26.

Norse, E. A. (2003). A zoning approach to managing marine ecosystems. In B. Cicin-Sain, C Ehler and K Goldstein, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Improving Regional Ocean Governance in the United States, 53. University of Delaware Center for the Study of Marine Policy, Newark, Delaware.

Norse, E. A. (2005). Ending the range wars on the last frontier: zoning the sea. In E. A. Norse and L. B. Crowder, eds. Marine Conservation Biology: the Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Norse, E. A., Crowder, L. B., Gjerde, K., Hyrenbach, D., Roberts, C. M., Safina, C. and Soulé, M. E. (2005). Place-based ecosystem management in the open ocean. In Marine Conservation Biology: the Science of Maintaining the Sea's Biodiversity, 302–327. Ed. by L. B. Crowder. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Nugent, I. and Profeta, T. (2006). Pathway to Ocean Ecosystem-based Management: Design Principles for Regional Ocean Governance in the United States. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University.

Olsen, S. B. (2006). A Handbook on Governance and Socioeconomics of Large Marine Ecosystems. University of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Center.

Pew Oceans Commission. (2003). America’s Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change.

Rice, J., et al. (2005). Guidance on the Application of the Ecosystem Approach to Management of Human Activities in the European Marine Environment. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 273. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Sherman, K. and Laughlin, T.L., eds. (1992). The Large Marine Ecosystem Concept and its Application to Regional Marine Resource Management. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/NEC-91. NOAA, Northeast Fisheries Science Center.

Sutinen, J., ed. (2000). A Framework for Monitoring and Assessing Socioeconomics and Governance of Large Marine Ecosystems. Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-158. NOAA, Northeast Fisheries Science Center.

Symes, D. (2005). Marine Spatial Planning: A Fisheries Perspective. Report to English Nature.

Tyldesley, D. (2003). Review of how the Land Use Planning System could influence the Development of a Marine Spatial Planning System for England. English Nature Report No. 566.

Tyldesley, D. (2004). Making the case for marine spatial planning in Scotland. Report commissioned by RSPB Scotland and RTPI in Scotland.

The University of Massachusetts Boston Planning Frameworks Team and the Massachusetts Ocean Partnership (2009). A Review of Ocean Management and Integrated Resource Management Programs from Around the World.

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy (2004). An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century.

Washington Forum on Marine Spatial Planning, Grays Harbor Marine Resources Committee, Aberdeen, WA, October 20, 2009.

Editorials, op-eds, and essays

Agardy, T. (2009). Is Ocean Zoning the Solution to Dying Marine Ecosystems? Scientific American Special Edition.

Lubchenco, J., and Sutley, N. (2010). Proposed U.S. Policy for Ocean, Coast, and Great Lakes Stewardship. Science, 328, No. 5985, 1485-86.

Mims, C., et al. (2009). World Changing Ideas: 20 Ways to Build a Cleaner, Healthier, Smarter World. Scientific American.

A Plan for the Ocean (2010). Nature, 465(9).

Ray, G. C. (2010). Coastal and marine spatial planning: a policy waiting to happen. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20(4), 363-364.

Winter, A. (2009). Does the ocean need zoning? Scientific American.

Prepared by Matthew Armsby, Center for Ocean Solutions, and Mike Fox, Center for Ocean Solutions and Moss Landing Marine Lab.

For more information about marine spatial planning, contact:

Ashley Erickson, Center for Ocean Solutions
ashleye1 [at] or call 650.387.1790

For General Inquiries about COS, contact:

Meg Caldwell, Executive Director or call 831.333.2077.

Center for Ocean Solutions 99 Pacific Street,
Suite 155A, Monterey, CA 93940
Email: contact [at]
Phone: 831.333.2077

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